Your Cart
Anns v Merton LBC 1978 | Tort Law

Anns v Merton LBC 1978 | Tort Law

Anns v Merton London Borough Council [1977] UKHL 4, [1978] AC 728 is a landmark case in English tort law that established a broad test for determining the existence of a duty of care in the tort of negligence called the Anns test (also known as a two-stage test) for true third-party negligence. 


In the case, the plaintiff, Mrs Anns, owned a house that suffered from structural damage due to inadequate foundations. She sued the defendant, Merton London Borough Council, for negligence, claiming that the Council had failed to carry out proper inspections and had approved the construction of the house without ensuring that the foundations were adequate.


The House of Lords, in a two-stage test, established a framework for determining whether a duty of care exists in a particular case:


  • Whether there was a sufficient relationship of proximity based upon foreseeability;
  • Whether there were considerations of reasons why there should not be a duty of care.


The first stage involves determining whether there is sufficient proximity between the parties and whether it is fair, just and reasonable to impose a duty of care. The second stage involves considering whether there are any policy considerations that would negate or limit the duty of care.


The House of Lords unanimously decided that the Council did owe a duty of care to Anns. This framework became known as the Anns test and was widely adopted by courts in England and Wales. However, the test was criticised for being too broad and for not taking into account the complexities of the law of negligence, and was subsequently overruled by Caparo v Dickman [1990], Murphy v Brentwood [1991], and Barrett v Enfield [1999].


In 2018, the Supreme Court overruled the Anns test in Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police and established a new approach for determining the existence of a duty of care, known as the incremental approach.


You can learn more about this topic and other relevant case law with our Tort Law notes.

What students are saying

uollb

"I am impressed by how the notes are structured to facilitate effective learning."

Emma Hamilton

uollb

"UOLLB will show you how to study law correctly and quickly."

Lucy Harrison

uollb

"Studying with UOLLB makes my life as a law student so much easier."

Daisy Holland

uollb first class law notes

"UOLLB professors are true legal educators who teach from students' perspectives."

Christ Corbin

uollb first class law notes

"I never thought that studying law could be that effortless until I started studying with UOLLB."

Julie Ononaji

uollb first class law notes

"UOLLB notes are very important law exam guides for open or closed book exams."

Jez Sharif

Featured Collection

Law Blog

Theft under Theft Act 1968
Theft is a criminal offence that involves the dishonest appropriation of another person's property without their consent, with the intention to permanently deprive them of it. Sections 1–7 of the Theft Act 1968 set out the legal framework of thi...
Read More
Robbery under Theft Act 1968
Robbery is a criminal offence that involves the act of taking someone else's property or belongings by force or threat of force. It is considered a more serious offence than theft alone because it involves a direct confrontation or intimidation ...
Read More
Theft Act 1968
The Theft Act 1968 defines and governs various offences related to theft and dishonesty in England and Wales. It provides a legal framework for prosecuting and addressing crimes involving theft, robbery, burglary, handling stolen goods, fraud, and re...
Read More
Fraud Act 2006
The Fraud Act 2006 specifically addresses the offence of fraud in England and Wales. It repeals Section 15 of the Theft Act 1968 and provides an updated legal framework for defining and prosecuting fraudulent activities. Here is an overview of the ke...
Read More
Burglary under Theft Act 1968
Burglary is a criminal offence that involves unlawfully entering a building or premises with the intention of committing a crime inside. Sections 9 and 10 of the Theft Act 1968 set out the legal framework of this offence, including its definition and...
Read More
100 Career Paths for LLB Graduates to Pursue
Your LLB will open a lot of doors for your career development beyond your imagination. Here are 100 career paths you may pursue with a law degree: 1. Legal Practice: You can choose to become solicitors or barristers and practice law. You can work in ...
Read More
What Is Case Management?
Case management refers to the process of managing and overseeing legal cases to ensure their efficient and effective progression through the legal system. It involves organising and coordinating various aspects of the case, including procedural matte...
Read More
Crown Prosecution Service
The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is the principal prosecuting authority in England and Wales. Here are some key points about the CPS: Role: The CPS is responsible for prosecuting criminal cases on behalf of the state. Its primary role is to review...
Read More
What Is Case Management Hearing?
A case management hearing is a procedural step in legal proceedings, including criminal trials, where the court manages and organises the case to ensure it progresses efficiently and effectively. Here are some key points about case management hearing...
Read More
Trial on Indictment: Procedure, Conviction, Sentencing, and Appeal
In England and Wales, a trial on indictment refers to a trial that takes place in the Crown Court for an indictable offence which is a more serious criminal offence than a summary offence. Here are some key points about trials on indictment:Natu...
Read More
Summary Trial: Procedure, Conviction, Sentencing, and Appeal
In England and Wales, a summary trial refers to a trial that takes place in the Magistrates' Court for summary offences. Here are some key points about summary trials: Nature of Offences: Summary offences are less serious criminal offences that are c...
Read More
Magistrates' Court in England and Wales
In England and Wales, the Magistrates' Court is a lower court within the criminal justice system. It primarily deals with less serious criminal cases, including summary offences and some types of either-way offences. Here are some key points about th...
Read More
Crown Court in England and Wales
In England and Wales, the Crown Court is a higher court within the criminal justice system. It deals with more serious criminal cases, including indictable offences (the most serious offences) and certain types of either-way offences. Here are some k...
Read More
Classification of Offences in England and Wales
In England and Wales, the criminal law distinguishes between three main categories of offences: summary offences, either way offences, and indictable offences. Summary Offence Summary offences are considered less serious criminal offences.They are tr...
Read More
What Is Either-Way Offence in England and Wales?
In England and Wales, an either-way offence, also known as a hybrid offence, dual offence, Crown option offence, dual procedure offence, offence triable either way, or wobbler, refers to a criminal offence that can be tried in either the Magistrates'...
Read More
What Is Indictable Offence in England and Wales?
In England and Wales, an indictable offence, also known as a indictable-only offence or an offence triable only on indictment, refers to a more serious criminal offence that can only be tried in the Crown Court. Indictable offences are typically more...
Read More
What Is Summary Offence in England and Wales?
In England and Wales, a summary offence, also known as a summary-only offence, a summary conviction offence or petty offence, refers to a type of criminal offence that is considered less serious and is typically dealt with in the Magistrates' Court. ...
Read More
Fraud in Fraud Act 2006
Fraud is a criminal offence that involves deceptive or dishonest behaviour intended to deceive another person or entity for personal gain or to cause them harm. The Fraud Act 2006 consolidated and updated previous legislation related to fraud offence...
Read More
Criminal Damage in Criminal Damage Act 1971
Criminal damage refers to the intentional or reckless act of destroying or damaging property that belongs to another person without lawful excuse. The Criminal Damage Act 1971 sets out the legal framework of this offence, including its definition and...
Read More
What Is Count in Criminal Litigation?
In criminal litigation, a count refers to a specific charge or allegation brought against a defendant in an indictment or information. In common law jurisdictions like the United Kingdom and the United States, criminal charges are typically divided i...
Read More
Making off without Payment under Theft Act 1978
Making off without payment is a criminal offence involving intentionally leaving a place where goods or services are provided, without paying for those services with the intent to avoid payment. Sections 3 and 4 of the Theft Act 1978 provides the leg...
Read More
Handling Stolen Goods under Theft Act 1968
Handling stolen goods is an offence that involves dealing with or possessing goods that an individual knows or believes to be stolen. Section 22 of the Theft Act 1968 provides the legal framework for prosecuting individuals who handle or receive good...
Read More
What Are Mitigating Factors for Sentencing?
Mitigating factors in sentencing are circumstances or elements of an offence that may reduce the culpability of the offender or lessen the severity of the sentence. These factors are considered by the court to provide a more nuanced understanding of ...
Read More
What Are Aggravating Factors for Sentencing?
Aggravating factors in sentencing are circumstances or elements of an offence that make it more serious or deserving of a harsher sentence. These factors are considered by the court to increase the culpability of the offender or the harm caused by th...
Read More
Blackmail under Theft Act 1968
Blackmail is a specific offence that involves making an unwarranted demand with menaces, intending to make a gain for oneself or cause a loss to another. Section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 provides the legal framework of blackmail, including its defini...
Read More

Case Law

R v Allen 1985 | Criminal Law
R v Allen (1985) AC 1029 is a notable case decided by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. The case involved the interpretation of the offence of making off without payment under the Theft Act 1968.In this case, Allen stayed at a hotel for nearl...
Read More
uollb first class law notes
Collins v Wilcock 1984 | Criminal Law
Collins v Wilcock (1984) 3 All ER 374 is an appellate case that concerns trespass to the person. Specifically, the court considered the definition of battery and the circumstances in which an individual's actions could be considered unlawful tou...
Read More
Addie v Dumbreck 1929 | Tort Law
Addie v Dumbreck 1929 | Tort Law
In Addie v Dumbreck (1929) AC 358, the House of Lords considered the liability of a landowner for the death of a child trespasser. It established that a landowner has no duty of care to trespassers as long as he does not intentionally or maliciously ...
Read More
British Railways Board v Herrington 1972 | Tort Law
British Railways Board v Herrington 1972 | Tort Law
In British Railways Board v Herrington (1972) AC 877, the House of Lords departed from the previous decision in Addie v Dumbreck and held that the defendant railway company owed a duty of care to trespassers, specifically to a six-year-old boy who su...
Read More
Carltona v Commissioners of Works 1943 | Public Law
Carltona v Commissioners of Works 1943 | Public Law
Carltona v Commissioners of Works (1943) 2 All ER 560 was a landmark case in English administrative law during the Second World War. The case concerned the power of government officials to delegate their statutory functions to other officials.The Eme...
Read More
MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1953 | Constitutional Law
MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1953 | Constitutional Law
MacCormick v Lord Advocate (1953) SC 396 was a Scottish constitutional law case concerning the use of the numeral "II" by Queen Elizabeth II in Scotland.John MacCormick and Ian Hamilton filed a legal action challenging the use of the numeral "II" by ...
Read More
R v Dytham 1979 | Criminal Law
R v Dytham 1979 | Criminal Law
R v Dytham [1979] QB 722 is a landmark case in English criminal law that dealt with the duty of a police officer to intervene in a criminal act. In this case, a police officer named Dytham was convicted of the common law offence of misconduct in publ...
Read More
R v Pagett 1983 | Criminal Law
R v Pagett 1983 | Criminal Law
R v Pagett (1983) 76 Cr App R 279 is a UK criminal law case that deals with the issue of causation in criminal law.In this case, Pagett who was under siege from armed police had taken his pregnant girlfriend hostage and was using her as a shield to a...
Read More
R v Stone and Dobinson 1977 | Criminal Law
R v Stone and Dobinson 1977 | Criminal Law
R v Stone and Dobinson [1977] 1 QB 354 is a well-known case in English criminal law. The case involved the prosecution of a couple, Stone and Dobinson, for the manslaughter of Stone's sister, Fanny.Fanny had come to live with the couple in a house in...
Read More
R v Adomako 1994 | Criminal Law
R v Adomako 1994 | Criminal Law
R v Adomako [1994] UKHL 6 is a landmark case in English criminal law that established the legal test for gross negligence manslaughter. The case involved an anaesthetist named Dr Adomako who was responsible for monitoring the patient's vital sig...
Read More
Smith v Leech Brain (1962) | Tort Law
Smith v Leech Brain (1962) | Tort Law
Smith v Leech Brain & Co [1962] 2 QB 405 is a landmark case in English tort law that concerns the issue of causation in the context of damages for personal injury. The case established the eggshell skull or thin skull rule, which states that a de...
Read More
R v Blaue (1975) | Criminal Law
R v Blaue (1975) | Criminal Law
R v Blaue (1975) 61 Cr App R 271 is a leading case in English criminal law that deals with the issue of causation in cases of manslaughter, specifically in relation to the defence of provocation.In this case, the defendant, Blaue, stabbed a woman mul...
Read More
R v Hayward (1908) | Criminal Law
R v Hayward (1908) | Criminal Law
R v Hayward (1908) 21 Cox CC 692 is a leading case on the issue of causation in the context of unlawful act manslaughter.In this case, the defendant's unlawful act of threatening his wife with violence caused her to be frightened, which combined with...
Read More
Entick v Carrington 1765 | Constitutional Law
Entick v Carrington 1765 | Constitutional Law
Entick v Carrington [1765] EWHC KB J98 was a landmark legal case that took place in England in 1765. It was a case that dealt with the issue of the power of the government to conduct searches and seizures without a warrant. The case arose when John E...
Read More
Young v Bristol Aeroplane 1944 | English Legal System
Young v Bristol Aeroplane 1944 | English Legal System
In Young v Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd (1944) KB 718 CA, the Court of Appeal established that it is generally bound to follow its own decisions and those of courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, except in the following three situations:The court can decid...
Read More
A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department 2004 | Public Law
A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department 2004 | Public Law
A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56 is a landmark case decided by the House of Lords in 2004. The case involved a group of foreign nationals who had been detained indefinitely in HM Prison Belmarsh under the Anti-...
Read More
A and Others v United Kingdom 2009 | Public Law
A and Others v United Kingdom 2009 | Public Law
Commonly referred to as the Belmarsh case, A and Others v the United Kingdom is a landmark case decided by the European Court of Human Rights in 2009. The case involved a group of individuals who were arrested and detained in HM Prison Belmarsh by th...
Read More
Von Colson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen 1984 | EU Law
Von Colson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen 1984 | EU Law
Von Colson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (1984) Case 14/83 was a landmark case decided by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in 1984. The case established the principle of indirect effect of EU law.The case involved German social workers Sabine Von Col...
Read More
Costa v ENEL 1964 | EU Law
Costa v ENEL 1964 | EU Law
Flaminio Costa v ENEL, also known as Case 6/64, was a landmark ruling by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in 1964. It established the principle of the supremacy of EU law over national law in EU member states.In the case, Flaminio Costa, an Italia...
Read More
Ivey v Genting Casinos 2017 | Criminal Law
Ivey v Genting Casinos 2017 | Criminal Law
Ivey v Genting Casinos (UK) Ltd t/a Crockfords [2017] UKSC 67 is a landmark case in English contract law and gambling law that addressed the concept of dishonesty in the context of cheating at gambling.The case involved a professional gambler, Mr Ive...
Read More
R v Ghosh 1982 | Criminal Law
R v Ghosh 1982 | Criminal Law
R v Ghosh [1982] EWCA Crim 2 is a landmark case in English criminal law that established a two-limb test for assessing dishonesty in cases of theft and other dishonest offences.The case involved an NHS surgeon, Dr Ghosh, who had fraudulently claimed ...
Read More
Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire 1987 | Tort Law
Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire 1987 | Tort Law
Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [1987] UKHL 12, [1989] AC 53 was a significant case in English tort law that established the concept of a duty of care in relation to the police's duty to protect the public from harm caused by third parties.T...
Read More
Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police 2018 | Tort Law
Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police 2018 | Tort Law
Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police [2018] UKSC 4 is a landmark case in English tort law that deals with the issue of whether a duty of care exists in situations involving the police and members of the public.The case involved an elde...
Read More
Barrett v London Borough of Enfield 1999 | Tort Law
Barrett v London Borough of Enfield 1999 | Tort Law
Barrett v London Borough of Enfield [1999] UKHL 2 is a landmark case in English law that dealt with the issue of local authority liability for the care of children in their care. The case involved a man who had spent his childhood in foster care and ...
Read More
Murphy v Brentwood District Council 1991 | Tort Loss
Murphy v Brentwood District Council 1991 | Tort Loss
Murphy v Brentwood District Council [1991] UKHL 2, [1991] 1 AC 398 was a judicial decision of the House of Lords in relation to recovery for pure economic loss in tort. The court overruled the decision Anns v Merton London Borough Council with respec...
Read More

Bar Exams

uollb first class law notes
Eligibility of Foreign Law Degree for New York Bar Exam
Foreign law graduates may be eligible to take the New York Bar Exam directly based on their foreign legal qualification. The specific requirements for foreign-educated applicants are outlined in Section 520.6 of the Rules of the Court of Appeals in N...
Read More
Eligibility of Foreign Qualification for US Bar Exam
Eligibility of Foreign Qualification for US Bar Exam
Foreign law graduates who wish to take the US bar exam must meet certain eligibility and requirements in order to be admitted to practice law in the United States. Here are the general requirements: Eligibility: The eligibility requirements for forei...
Read More
US Bar Exam
US Bar Exam
The US bar exam is a standardised test that is administered to law school graduates who wish to practice law in the United States. The exam is typically administered over two days and consists of both multiple-choice and essay questions. The purpose ...
Read More
California Bar Exam
California Bar Exam
The California Bar Exam is a test that individuals must pass in order to become licensed to practise law in the state of California. The exam is administered by the State Bar of California and consists of both a written portion and a multiple-choice ...
Read More
All India Bar Examination (AIBE) Syllabus 2023
All India Bar Exam (AIBE) Syllabus 2023
The All India Bar Exam (AIBE) is a national level exam conducted by the Bar Council of India (BCI) for candidates who have completed their law degrees and wish to practice law in India. The AIBE consists of 100 multiple-choice questions testing ...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in Pakistan?
How to Become a Lawyer in Pakistan?
Becoming a lawyer in Pakistan requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training and passing the bar exam. The process of becoming a lawyer in Pakistan typically takes several years to complete, and you will need to follow these sp...
Read More
All India Bar Examination AIBE
All India Bar Exam
The All India Bar Exam (AIBE) is a national-level examination that is conducted by the Bar Council of India (BCI) to assess the knowledge and skills of law graduates who want to practice law in India. The AIBE is mandatory for all law graduates who w...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in India?
How to Become a Lawyer in India?
Becoming a lawyer in India requires a combination of academic qualifications and passing the bar exam. The process of becoming a lawyer typically takes several years to complete, and you will need to follow these specific steps: Complete secondary ed...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in California?
How to Become a Lawyer in California?
California is one of the most popular destinations for foreign and domestic lawyers to practise law there. Each years, over 16,000 candidates sit the California Bar Exam, but sadly it is one of the hardest bar exams with one of the lowest pass rates ...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in New Zealand?
How to Become a Lawyer in New Zealand?
Becoming a lawyer in New Zealand requires a combination of academic qualifications and practical training. The process of becoming a lawyer typically takes several years to complete, and you will need to follow these specific steps: Complete a law de...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in Canada?
How to Become a Lawyer in Canada?
Becoming a lawyer in Canada requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and passing the bar exam. The process of becoming a lawyer typically takes several years to complete, and you will need to follow these specific steps:...
Read More
New York Law Course
New York Law Course
The New York Law Course (NYLC) is a requirement for admission to the New York State Bar. It is an online course that covers New York-specific legal topics, including ethics, professionalism, and skills needed for practicing law in New York. The NYLC ...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in New York?
How to Become a Lawyer in New York?
Becoming a lawyer in New York requires a combination of academic qualifications, passing the bar exam, and satisfying some additional requirements. The process of becoming a lawyer typically takes several years to complete the following steps: Earn a...
Read More
New York Law Exam
New York Law Exam
The New York Law Exam (NYLE) is a two-hour online exam administered by the New York State Board of Law Examiners. The exam is designed to test a candidate's knowledge of New York law and procedure, which is a requirement for admission to the bar in t...
Read More
How to Become a Solicitor in England and Wales?
How to Become a Solicitor in England and Wales?
Becoming a solicitor in England and Wales requires a combination of academic qualifications, passing qualifying exams and gaining qualified work experience. The profession is regulated by the Solicitors Regulatory Authority, and the process of becomi...
Read More
How to Become ax Barrister in England and Wales?
How to Become a Barrister in England and Wales?
Becoming a barrister in England and Wales requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and pupillage. The profession is regulated by the General Council of the Bar, and the process of becoming a barrister typically takes sev...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in Australia?
How to Become a Lawyer in Australia?
Becoming a lawyer in Australia requires a combination of academic qualifications and practical training. To become a lawyer in Australia, you will need to follow these specific steps: Obtain a law degree: You will need to complete a Bachelor of Laws ...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in Malaysia?
How to Become a Lawyer in Malaysia?
Becoming a lawyer in Malaysia requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and passing the bar exam. The profession is regulated by the Malaysia Bar, and the process of becoming a lawyer typically takes several years to comp...
Read More
How to Become a Lawyer in Singapore?
How to Become a Lawyer in Singapore?
Becoming a lawyer in Singapore requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and passing the bar exams. The profession is regulated by the Legal Services Regulatory Authority, and the process of becoming a lawyer typically ta...
Read More
How to become a barrister in hong kong
How to Become a Barrister in Hong Kong?
Becoming a solicitor in Hong Kong requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and passing qualifying exams. The profession is regulated by the Hong Kong Bar Association, and the process of becoming a barrister typically tak...
Read More
How to Become a Solicitor in Hong Kong?
How to Become a Solicitor in Hong Kong?
Becoming a solicitor in Hong Kong requires a combination of academic qualifications, practical training, and passing qualifying exams. The profession is regulated by the Law Society of Hong Kong, and the process of becoming a solicitor typically take...
Read More
American Bar Association Model Rules of Professional Conduct
American Bar Association Model Rules of Professional Conduct
The American Bar Association Model Rules of Professional Conduct are a set of ethical guidelines that govern the professional conduct of lawyers in the United States. The Model Rules were first adopted in 1983 and have been revised several times sinc...
Read More
Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination MPRE
Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam | United States
The Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE) is an exam administered by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) that measures a candidate's knowledge and understanding of the professional conduct rules that govern lawyers' ethical b...
Read More
National Conference of Bar Examiners NCBE
National Conference of Bar Examiners | United States
The National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) is a non-profit organisation that develops and administers standardised tests for bar admission in the United States. The NCBE was founded in 1931 and is based in Madison, Wisconsin.The NCBE is responsi...
Read More
Multistate Bar Examination MBE
Multistate Bar Exam | United States
The Multistate Bar Exam (MBE) is a standardised, multiple-choice test that is administered as part of the bar exam in the United States. The MBE is developed and administered by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE), and is used by most sta...
Read More

Legal English

Transition vs Conjunction
Transition vs Conjunction
In grammar, a transition is a word or phrase that connects one idea or sentence to another. It helps to create coherence and flow in writing, making it easier for readers to understand the relationship between different ideas. Examples of transition ...
Read More
Drafting Particulars of Claim for SQE
Particulars of claim are a legal document that sets out the factual and legal basis of a party's claim in a civil lawsuit. Candidates taking the SQE are often required to draft this kind of document as part of the legal drafting assessment. The purpo...
Read More
Passive Voice in Legal Writing
Passive Voice in Legal Writing
Passive voice is a grammatical construction where the subject of a sentence receives the action of the verb, rather than performing the action. In passive voice, the focus is on the recipient of the action rather than the doer. In legal writing, the ...
Read More
Tips for Effective Legal Writing
Tips for Effective Legal Writing
Legal writing is a type of writing used by lawyers, judges, and other legal professionals to communicate legal information and arguments to others. It is typically more formal and technical than other types of writing, and may sometimes involves comp...
Read More
Legal Drafting in SQE
Legal Drafting in SQE
Legal drafting is an important skill that is tested in the solicitors qualifying exam (SQE). It assesses the ability of candidates to draft or edit legal documents in a clear, concise, and logical manner.The assessment is marked by trained solicitors...
Read More
What is Legal Drafting?
What is Legal Drafting?
Legal drafting is the process of writing legal documents, such as contracts, agreements, wills, deeds, and pleadings, in a clear, concise, and legally accurate manner. Legal drafting requires a thorough understanding of the relevant laws, regulations...
Read More
Features of Legal English
Features of Legal English
Legal English has several unique features that set it apart from standard English. Some of the most important features of legal English include:Use of technical terminology: Legal English incorporates a significant amount of technical terminology tha...
Read More
Legal English
Legal English Doesn't Have to Be Hard
Legal English is a specialised variety of the English language used in legal writing. It is formal English which differs from the ordinary use in terms of vocabulary, morphology, syntax, and semantics. However, it does not have to be hard, and i...
Read More
Legal Drafting
How to Draft Legal Documents?
Legal drafting is a writing process that manipulates facts to achieve a predictable and planned legal result your client desires. Lawyers are often required to prepare documents that make the law operate in such a manner as to accomplish the client’s...
Read More
Writing Advice for Law Students
Writing Advice for Law Students
The writing advice for law exams and law assignments is the same, but its application varies in these two situations. Many of the following pieces of advice may be forgiven under exam conditions but are non-negotiable in assessed coursework. Anyway, ...
Read More

LLB Exams

How to Handle Online Open-Book Law Exams?
Online exams have become a common form of assessment since the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though the world has gotten back to normal, online assessments continue to be adopted by many universities, including the University of London Worldwide. What make...
Read More
uollb first class law notes
How to Improve Law Exam Skills?
To improve your law exam skills, it is important to focus on both your understanding of the law and your exam preparation strategies. Here are some tips to help you excel in law exams:Understand the exam format: Familiarise yourself with the structur...
Read More
uollb first class law notes
How to Study Law?
Studying law efficiently requires a systematic approach and dedication. Here are some tips to help you learn law effectively:Establish a study routine: Set aside dedicated time for studying law each day. Consistency is key to building a solid foundat...
Read More
Checklist for Answering Problem Questions
Checklist for Answering Problem Questions
When preparing for a law exam that includes problem questions, it can be helpful to have a checklist to ensure you cover all the necessary elements. Here's a checklist you can use:Have I identified the legal issue?Read the problem question carefully ...
Read More
Checklist for First-Class Law Essays
Checklist for First-Class Law Essays
Here is a more detailed law essay checklist to help you cover all the important aspects of writing a comprehensive and well-structured essay:Understanding the questionHave I thoroughly read and understood the essay question or prompt?Have I identifie...
Read More
Steps in Answering Problem Questions in Law Exams
Steps in Answering Problem Questions in Law Exams
For every question, it is essential to understand and apply the relevant law to the given problem scenario. You are advised to be thorough in your analysis, provide well-reasoned arguments, and support your conclusions with legal authority. Here is a...
Read More
Steps to Write First-Class Law Essays
Steps in Writing First-Class Law Essays
Writing a first-class law essay requires a deep understanding of legal principles, critical analysis, and effective communication. Take your time, conduct thorough research, and ensure your arguments are supported by credible sources and legal reason...
Read More
10 Essential Law Exam Skills
10 Essential Law Exam Skills
As a law student, preparing for exams can be a daunting task. There is a lot of material to cover, and you need to be able to analyse and apply the law effectively. However, by mastering certain skills, you can improve your chances of success. Here a...
Read More
Why Should You Predict Exam Questions and How?
Why Should You Predict Exam Questions and How?
Predicting exam questions is important because it helps you focus your study efforts on the most important topics that are likely to be covered on the exam. By understanding what types of questions may be asked, you can develop a study plan that targ...
Read More
Essay Directive Words: The Secret to First-Class Essays
Essay Directive Words: The Secret to First-Class Essays
Essay question words, also known as directive words, are the specific words or phrases used in an essay question that tell the writer what approach they should take when answering the question. These words help to guide the writer and ensure that the...
Read More
How to Excel at Law Exams?
How to Excel at Law Exams?
Law exams can be challenging, but with proper preparation and effective exam-taking strategies, you can improve your skills and increase your chances of success. Here are some tips for improving your skills for a law exam:Review the syllabus and unde...
Read More
Useful Phrases for Problem Questions
Useful Phrases for Problem Questions
Here are some key phrases that can help your law essay stand out from others.This question deals with … The principal issue raised by this question … The main issue is whether … The issues to be considered are … The problem also raises the issue of …...
Read More
Three Types of Law Essays
Types of Law Essays
A law essay is an academic paper written by a law student that explores and analyses legal issues, principles, and theories. Law essays generally fall into the following three categories:Legal Theory: This type of essay focuses on exploring why the l...
Read More
What to Do and Avoid in Law Essays
What to Do and Avoid in Law Essays?
Do not use casual or informal language. Keeping it simple does not mean informality; your style should remain academic and not include slang, abbreviations or colloquialisms, unless they are direct, properly referenced quotes.Always use full sentence...
Read More
How to Avoid Plagiarism in Open Book Exam Paraphrasing Technique
How to Avoid Plagiarism in Open Book Exams
Open book exams can be a trap for incautious students. The good thing about open book exams is that you can refer to anything you get hold of while taking the exam. However, this is also where problems lie. You should not copy reference materials ver...
Read More
Golden Rules for Law Exams
Golden Rules for Law Exams
1. Prepare thoroughly. In particular, practise doing the past examination questions.2. Read the examination paper carefully. Choose the four questions that you want to answer, and make a rough allocation of time.3. Make rough notes on the answers to ...
Read More
How to Apply Case Law in Law Exams?
How to Apply Case Law in Law Exams?
Don’t waste your time retelling the whole story or any part of it. You won’t get marks for doing this. You just need to state the principle or ruling of the case to support your point. Ideally, you should cite the whole case name, including...
Read More
Wrong Way to Study Law
Wrong Way to Study Law
Your professors love to ask you to do all the readings and read all the cases. This is certainly the wrong way to study law. First, cases are very long and full of clumsy sentences badly written by judges who do not care about your understanding.Seco...
Read More
How to Understand Law Essay Questions?
How to Understand Law Essay Questions?
The first step to a successful law essay is understanding the question. One of the most effective ways of breaking down the question is to identify the direction, content, and scope or limiting words.Critically analyse the extent to which the tort of...
Read More

Common Law

Introduction to English Common Law
Introduction to English Common Law
Welcome to this course on Introduction to English Common Law. English common law is one of the most influential legal systems in the world, having shaped the legal systems of many other countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and N...
Read More
Sources of EU Law
Sources of EU Law
The sources of EU law provide the legal framework for the functioning of the EU, ensuring that EU law is applied consistently and predictably across all member states. These sources of law include primary sources such as treaties, as well as secondar...
Read More
Advantages and Disadvantages of Precedent
Advantages and Disadvantages of Precedent
Precedent is the practice of using previous court decisions as a guide for deciding current cases. This can be advantageous in several ways, but it also has some disadvantages. Here are some of the key advantages and disadvantages of using precedent:...
Read More
AV Dicey and the Rule of Law
AV Dicey and the Rule of Law