The Life of Muhammed and His Family and Tribe (Quraysh)

Muhammad, also spelled Mohammed or Muhammad ibn Abdallah, was born in the year 570 CE in Mecca, a prominent city in the Arabian Peninsula. He was a member of the Quraysh tribe, which held a position of power and influence in Mecca.

Early life and family: Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim clan, one of the clans of the Quraysh tribe. His father, Abdullah, died before his birth, and his mother, Aminah, passed away when he was six years old. Muhammad was then raised by his paternal grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, and later by his uncle, Abu Talib.

Marriage and family life: Muhammad married Khadijah, a wealthy and respected woman from the Quraysh tribe, when he was 25 years old. They had several children, including Qasim, Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah, and Abdullah. However, most of his sons died at a young age, and only Fatimah survived to adulthood.

Quraysh tribe: The Quraysh tribe was the dominant tribe in Mecca and held authority over the Kaaba, the sacred shrine in the city. They were known for their trade and commerce, as Mecca was a significant trading hub. The Quraysh consisted of several clans, including the Banu Hashim, Banu Umayya, Banu Makhzum, and Banu Abd Shams.

Prophethood and message: At the age of 40, Muhammad received the first revelations from God through the angel Gabriel, marking the beginning of his prophethood. He preached monotheism and called people to worship the one true God, Allah, and to follow the teachings and guidance revealed to him. Muhammad's message challenged the polytheistic beliefs and practices of the Quraysh tribe and sought to bring about social justice, moral values, and spiritual enlightenment.

Persecution and migration: Muhammad faced opposition and persecution from the Quraysh tribe and other members of the Meccan society who opposed his message. As the number of his followers grew, Muhammad and his followers faced increasing hostility. In 622 CE, he and his followers migrated from Mecca to the city of Medina, an event known as the Hijra. This migration marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar and marked a turning point in the development of the Islamic community.

Medina and consolidation of power: In Medina, Muhammad established a new political and social order, unifying various tribes and creating a society based on the principles of justice, equality, and faith. He entered into treaties and agreements with different tribes and worked towards the consolidation of the Muslim community.

Return to mecca and succession: After several years in Medina, Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca in 630 CE. With minimal resistance, they regained control over the city, and Muhammad entered the Kaaba, purifying it of idols. He forgave his former enemies and emphasised unity among the various tribes.

Muhammad passed away in 632 CE in Medina, leaving a lasting impact on the development of Islam. His family and descendants, known as the Ahl al-Bayt, hold a significant place in Islamic history and are revered by Muslims worldwide. The Quraysh tribe continued to play a significant role in the early Islamic period, with many of Muhammad's early companions and prominent figures belonging to the Quraysh.
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