Three Main Categories of Islamic Law

Islamic law, also known as Sharia law, can be categorised into three main areas: Aqidah, Fiqh, and Akhlaq. Each category addresses different aspects of Islamic beliefs, practices, and moral conduct. 

Aqidah: Aqidah refers to matters of faith and belief in Allah (God) in Islamic theology. It encompasses the fundamental tenets of Islam, such as the belief in the oneness of Allah, the prophethood of Muhammad, belief in angels, divine books, predestination, and the Day of Judgment. Aqidah provides a framework for understanding the core beliefs of Islam and forms the foundation of a Muslim's faith.

Fiqh: Fiqh deals with the practical application of Islamic principles and encompasses both the relationship between individuals and their Creator (ibadat) and the interactions between individuals (muamalat). Ibadat includes acts of worship, such as prayer (salah), fasting (sawm), pilgrimage (hajj), and giving charity (zakat). Muamalat covers various aspects of human interactions, including contractual obligations, property rights, family law, criminal law, and commercial transactions. Fiqh provides guidance on how Muslims should conduct themselves in their daily lives in accordance with Islamic principles.

Akhlaq: Akhlaq, also known as Adab, focuses on the moral and ethical behaviour of Muslims. It encompasses a wide range of virtues and character traits that Muslims should cultivate in their personal and social lives. Akhlaq addresses issues such as honesty, integrity, kindness, compassion, justice, humility, patience, and good manners. It emphasises the development of virtuous qualities and the avoidance of vices. Akhlaq guides Muslims in their relationships with others, encouraging them to uphold high ethical standards and to strive for moral excellence.

These three categories of Islamic law work together to guide Muslims in their beliefs, practices, and moral conduct. Aqidah establishes the core theological beliefs, Fiqh provides practical guidance for religious obligations and legal matters, and Akhlaq directs Muslims towards righteous behaviour and moral virtues. Collectively, they form an integral part of Islamic teachings, shaping the religious, legal, and ethical aspects of a Muslim's life.
Back to blog

UOL Case Bank

Upon joining, you become a valuable UOL student and gain instant access to over 2,100 case summaries. UOL Case Bank is constantly expanding. Speed up your revision with us now.

Subscribe Now

Where are our students from?

Yale University
Council of Europe
Baker Mckenzie 
University of Chicago
Columbia University
New York University
University of Michigan 
University College London (UCL)
London School of Economics (LSE)
King’s College London (KCL)
University of London
University of Manchester
University of Zurich
University of York
Brandeis University
University of Exeter
University of Sheffield
Boston University
University of Washington
University of Leeds
University of Law
Royal Holloway, University of London 
Birkbeck, University of London
SOAS, University of London
University of Kent
University of Hull
Queen’s University Belfast
Toronto Metropolitan University
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
University of Buckingham
ESSEC Business School

  • Criminal Practice

    Diagrams and Charts

    Our carefully designed diagrams and charts will guide you through complex legal issues.

  • Criminal Law

    Clear and Succinct Definitions

    Key concepts are concisely defined to help you understand legal topics quickly.

  • Property Law

    Statutory Provisions

    Statutory provisions are provided side by side with legal concepts to help you swiftly locate the relevant legislation.

  • Public Law

    Case Summaries

    We have summarised important cases for you so that you don't need to read long and boring cases.

  • Evidence

    Rules and Exceptions

    Rules and exceptions are clearly listed so that you know when a rule applies and when it doesn't.

  • Company Law


    Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

  • Case Law

    Case law is provided side by side with legal concepts so that you know how legal principles and precedents were established.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Law Essay Guide

    You will learn essential law exam skills and essay writing techniques that are not taught in class.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Problem Question Guide

    We will show you how to answer problem questions step by step to achieve first-class results.

  • Conflict of Laws

    Structured Explanations

    Complex legal concepts are broken down into concise and digestible bullet point explanations.

  • Legal System and Method

    Legal Research

    You will learn legal research techniques with our study guide and become a proficient legal researcher.

  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory


    All essential concepts, principles, and case law are included so that you can answer exam questions quickly.