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Study with our exam-focused law notes written by world-class legal educators with reference to the law programmes of UK universities and professional exams.


UOLLB and UOL learning materials are suitable for anyone studying common law at any university or preparing for law exams, including LLB, PGDL, GDL, LPC, LLM, MA Law, MLaw, and SQE.


All difficult legal concepts are turned into digestible bullet points, arranged in a memorable sequence, and supported by case law and statute law. You will learn more efficiently from our law notes than from your textbooks or subject guides.


Most importantly, you will learn essential law exam skills and essay writing techniques that are not taught in class. We will show you how to answer problem questions and write law essays step by step to achieve first-class results.


It is totally possible to achieve first-class results by self-study. The topics also cover professional exams such as the SQE, so you will revise for multiple qualifications with one set of notes.


⭐️ UOLLB and and UOL learning materials are updated every year to reflect any changes in the curriculum.


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UOLLB First Class Law Notes®

Your perfect study companion to open-book or closed-book exams

Features of UOLLB and UOL Learning Materials

UOLLB First Class Law Notes

Diagrams and Charts

Our carefully designed diagrams and charts will guide you through complex legal issues.

Clear and Succinct Definitions

Key concepts are concisely defined to help you understand legal topics quickly.

Statutory Provisions

Statutory provisions are provided side by side with legal concepts to help you swiftly locate the relevant legislation.

Case Summaries

We have summarised important cases for you so that you don't need to read long and boring cases.

Rules and Exceptions

Rules and exceptions are clearly listed so that you know when a rule applies and when it doesn't.

Terminology

Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

Case Law

Case law is provided side by side with legal concepts so that you know how legal principles and precedents were established.

Law Essay Guide

You will learn essential law exam skills and essay writing techniques that are not taught in class.

Problem Question Guide

We will show you how to answer problem questions step by step to achieve first-class results.

Structured Explanations

Complex legal concepts are broken down into concise and digestible bullet point explanations.

Legal Research

You will learn legal research techniques with our study guide and become a proficient legal researcher.

Exam-focused

All essential concepts, principles, and case law are included so that you can answer exam questions quickly.

UOL Blog

Principles of Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. It determines which court system should properly adjudicate a dispute or a case, based on factors such as geography, subject matter, and the parties involved. The p...
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Arguments for and against Criminalising Public Order Crimes
Public order crimes, also known as victimless crimes, involve acts that do not directly harm the person or property of another, but are considered to harm the community or society in general. These can include drug use, prostitution, public drunkenne...
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Prohibition on Discrimination on Grounds of Race: Fundamental to Human Rights
In the panorama of human rights, the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race stands as a cornerstone principle, embodying the essence of equality and justice. This principle asserts that all individuals, regardless of their racial or eth...
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International Law and Military Intervention
The complex discussion around international law and military intervention, particularly for humanitarian purposes, touches on foundational principles of sovereignty, human rights, and the role of international organisations and states in addressing s...
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Discuss the relationship between 'sanction' and 'command' theories of law, with reference to the work of Austin and Kelsen.
In examining the relationship between the command and sanction theories of law as articulated by Austin and Kelsen respectively, it becomes evident that while both theories fall under the umbrella of sanction theories, they diverge significantly in t...
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Adverse Possession: A Moral Conundrum in Property Law
Adverse possession, often described as a legal doctrine allowing individuals to claim ownership of land they do not rightfully own through continuous and unauthorised use, is a concept that straddles the intersection of law, morality, and property ri...
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Unreasonableness vs Unconscionability
In the vast landscape of legal terminology, two terms frequently encountered, often interchangeably but with distinct implications, are unreasonableness and unconscionability. However their distinctions serve as vital safeguards against unfairness an...
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Himalaya Clause
In Contract Law and Commercial Law, a Himalaya clause is a provision commonly found in contracts involving carriage of goods by sea or land, particularly in bills of lading and contracts of carriage. This clause extends the benefit of limitation of l...
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Open Justice
In jurisprudence, the concept of open justice stands tall as a beacon of transparency, ensuring that the legal process remains accessible and accountable to all. Rooted in the principle that justice must not only be done but also seen to be done, ope...
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Understanding Image Rights
In the contemporary era of digital sharing and widespread dissemination of images, the concept of image rights has gained paramount significance. Image rights encapsulate the legal considerations aimed at safeguarding individuals and entities from th...
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What makes a theory of law a natural law theory?
A natural law theory of law is grounded in the idea that there are inherent and objective principles of justice and morality that underlie and guide human legal systems. These theories posit that the validity of legal rules is not solely dependent on...
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Differences Between Per Capita and Per Stripes
The law of wills and succession is a complex area that governs the distribution of a deceased person's assets among their heirs. Two key principles that play a significant role in this process are per capita and per stirpes. These Latin terms may sou...
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Human Rights vs Fundamental Rights
The terms "human rights" and "fundamental rights" are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion about their meanings. While both concepts share commonalities, they also have distinct characteristics that set them apart. This article aims to el...
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Elements of Defamation
Defamation is a legal concept that involves making false statements about an individual or entity, damaging their reputation. To establish a defamation case, certain elements typically need to be present. The exact elements can vary by jurisdiction, ...
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Common Defences to Defamation
Defamation is a legal term that refers to the act of damaging someone's reputation by making false statements about them. There are several defences available to individuals accused of defamation, which vary depending on jurisdiction. Here are some c...
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M'Naghten Rules
The M'Naghten rules, pronounced and sometimes spelled as McNaughton, represent a legal test that defines the defence of insanity. First formulated by the House of Lords in 1843, this test has become the established standard in English criminal law an...
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Negligence vs Recklessness
Negligence and recklessness are both legal concepts that pertain to different levels of culpability in tort law and criminal law. NegligenceNegligence is the failure to exercise the degree of care that a reasonable person would exercise under similar...
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Motive vs Intent
Motive and intent are distinct concepts in criminal law, and they refer to different aspects of a person's mental state and actions.IntentIntent or intention refers to the actor's purpose or aim in committing a specific act. It involves the consciou...
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Malice vs Intent
Malice and intent are legal terms often used to describe different mental states or culpable mental elements in criminal law. While they share some similarities, they have distinct meanings:IntentIntent or Intention refers to the actor's purpose or a...
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What Is Trite Law?
Trite law refers to legal principles that are well-established, widely recognised, and considered to be settled and elementary within a particular legal jurisdiction. These are principles that have been consistently applied and accepted over time, an...
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Differences Between Common Law And Civil Law Systems
The legal systems of the world can broadly be categorised into two main types: Common Law and Civil Law. These systems serve as the foundation for the legal frameworks of numerous countries, each with its own unique characteristics and principles. Un...
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How to Achieve Judiciary Diversity
The question of whether the judiciary is diverse enough is a complex and often debated issue in many jurisdictions. Diversity in the judiciary refers to a range of factors, including but not limited to gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic backgroun...
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Role of Juries in Criminal Trials
Juries play a pivotal role in the criminal justice system, acting as a fundamental component that ensures fairness, impartiality, and democratic values in the adjudication of criminal cases. In this article, we will explore the significance of juries...
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Marxism and the Concept of Class
Marxism, as a socio-political and economic theory, has significantly shaped our understanding of societal structures and the distribution of power. At the core of Marxist philosophy is the concept of class, which explores the intricate relationships ...
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What Is Unconscionability?
Unconscionability, a legal concept deeply embedded in contract law, serves as a powerful safeguard against unfair and oppressive contractual practices. Rooted in principles of equity and fairness, the doctrine of unconscionability empowers courts to ...
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Case Summaries

Clinton v Jones 1997
Clinton v Jones [1997] 520 US 681 is a landmark ruling that unequivocally declared that a sitting President is not immune from civil litigation for acts done before taking office and unrelated to the office. This decision represented a significant mo...
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Nixon v Fitzgerald 1982
Nixon v Fitzgerald 457 US 731 [1982] is a cornerstone in the legal framework surrounding presidential immunity within the United States. This case unequivocally established the precedent that the President of the United States is granted absolute imm...
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R v Lucas [1981]
R v Lucas (Lyabode Ruth) [1981] QB 720 established the Lucas direction which stands as a guiding principle within criminal trials, particularly in how juries should interpret evidence concerning lies told by a defendant. This legal doctrine, establis...
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Wood v Waddington [2014]
Wood v Waddington [2014] EWHC 1358 examined the scope and application of the implied grant of easements under Section 62 of the Law of Property Act 1925 (LPA 1925), departing from the precedents set in earlier cases such as Long v Gowlett and Kent v ...
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Smith and Snipes Hall Farm v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949]
Smith and Snipes Hall Farm Ltd v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949] 2 KB 500 is a significant English land law and contract law appeal decision. The case, decided by Denning LJ, establishes key principles related to positive covenants, privity of c...
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Borman v Griffith 1930
Borman v Griffith [1930] 1 Ch 493 is a significant case in English property law, particularly regarding the implication of easements under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows.The case involved a lease agreement between the tenant and the landlord for a lo...
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AG Securities v Vaughan; Antoniades v Villiers 1988
AG Securities v Vaughan and Antoniades v Villiers [1988] UKHL 8 were pivotal House of Lords cases that clarified the role of exclusive possession in determining the nature of a lease under English land law. These rulings provided crucial guidance on ...
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R (G) v Governors of X School 2011
R (G) v Governors of X School [2011] UKSC 30 examined whether the claimant's rights under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) were engaged in a disciplinary hearing conducted by X School. The claimant argued that the school...
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R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office 2008
R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008] UKHL 60 revolved around the Serious Fraud Office's (SFO) decision to terminate an investigation into alleged bribery involving BAE Systems, a major defence contractor, and the S...
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Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd 1949
Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949] AC 386 revolved around the attribution of injuries suffered by a nine-year-old boy solely to the negligence of the respondent's employee and whether there was contributory negligence on the part of the child.The cl...
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W v Essex County Council 2001
W v Essex County Council [2001] 2 AC 592 is a legal case that explored the concept of primary and secondary victims in the context of psychiatric injury resulting from negligence. The case involved involuntary participants placed in a situation by th...
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Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council 2000
Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000] 1 WLR 1082 is a significant case that delves into the foreseeability of harm in negligence claims, particularly when the claimant is a child. The central issue revolved around the duty of care owed by the...
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Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co 2008
Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008] 1 AC 281 marked a significant development in the law regarding the recovery of damages for psychiatric illness. The central principle established in this case is that for psychiatric illness to be recove...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Miller Steamship Co Ltd 1967
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v The Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967] 1 AC 617, commonly referred to as The Wagon Mound (No 2), established a key legal principle regarding the relevance of the seriousness of possible harm in determining the extent of a par...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd 1961
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961] AC 388, commonly known as The Wagon Mound (No 1), established a crucial principle in the law of negligence—that for damage or injury to be actionable, it must be reasonably foresee...
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R v Pitham and Hehl 1997
R v Pitham and Hehl [1997] 65 Cr App R 45 revolved around whether offering something for sale that one does not own, even without physically moving the property, constitutes appropriation under the Theft Act 1968.A person, referred to as M, sold furn...
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Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) 1975
Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975] QB 773 clarified the requirements for the offence of procuring, emphasising that shared intention between the person procuring an offence and the person committing it is not a necessary element.The facts involved ...
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R v Bainbridge 1960
R v Bainbridge [1960] 1 QB 129 clarified the requirement for guilt in aiding and abetting, stating that the accessory must have knowledge of the intention of the principal to commit an offence of the type that was actually committed.The case involved...
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Blakely and Sutton v DPP 1991
Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991] Crim LR 763 examined the mens rea (mental element) required for the offence of procuring. The central premise established was that the mens rea of procuring entails both the intention to perform the act that significan...
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R v Rook 1993
R v Rook [1993] 2 All ER 955 examined the requirement for an accused to successfully withdraw from a criminal enterprise in which they had initially participated. The key criterion emphasised was the necessity for unequivocal communication of withdra...
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R v Becerra and Cooper 1976
R v Becerra and Cooper [1976] 62 App R 212 addressed the criteria for successfully withdrawing from a criminal enterprise, emphasising the necessity of unequivocal communication of withdrawal to other perpetrators.Becerra providing Cooper with a knif...
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R v O’Flaherty 2004
R v O’Flaherty [2004] EWCA Crim 526 concerned the issue of withdrawal from a joint enterprise, emphasising that spontaneous disengagement without communication could constitute a valid withdrawal.Three defendants, X, Y, and Z, who participated in an ...
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R v Calhaem 1985
R v Calhaem [1985] QB 808 explored the concept of guilt as an accessory and the extent of liability for counselling without a direct causal link between the counselling and the principal offence.Calhaem, the defendant, counselling an individual, X, t...
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R v Clarkson (David) 1971
R v Clarkson (David) [1971] 55 Cr App Rep 445 is an English criminal case that dealt with aiding and abetting, particularly the requirement of active encouragement for liability to be established.The defendant, David Clarkson, was implicated in a dis...
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R v JF Alford Transport 1997
R v JF Alford Transport [1997] 2 Cr APP R 326 addressed the principle that an omission could constitute aiding and abetting if the defendant had control over the principal and knowledge of the offence. Additionally, the court clarified that deliberat...
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Law Modules

UOL International Protection of Human Rights
International Protection of Human Rights explores the nature of human rights, the legal mechanisms established to enforce them, and key thematic areas such as the prohibition of torture, racial discrimination, and the rights of refugees. This module ...
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UOL Modules
LLB programmes serve as the gateway for aspiring legal professionals to delve into the complexities of law and its multifaceted dimensions. The curriculum is meticulously designed to equip students not only with the foundational knowledge of legal pr...
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UOL Contract Law
Contract Law provides a comprehensive exploration of the fundamental principles that govern contractual relationships. It is designed to equip students with a deep understanding of the legal framework surrounding contracts, enabling them to navigate ...
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UOL Criminal Law
Criminal Law offers an in-depth exploration of the foundational principles that govern criminal liability, examining key concepts such as actus reus, mens rea, and the various criminal offences. This course is designed to provide students with a comp...
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UOL Public Law
Public Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the constitutional and legal framework that governs the relationships between individuals and the state. This course explores key principles such as parliamentary sovere...
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UOL Legal System and Method
Legal System and Method is a foundational exploration of the fundamental components that constitute the legal system in England and Wales. This course aims to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the common law tradition, constituti...
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UOL Tort Law
Tort Law is a comprehensive exploration of the principles governing civil wrongs in the British legal system. This course seeks to equip students with a detailed understanding of tortious liability, its various forms, and the legal mechanisms involve...
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UOL Property Law
Property Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal principles governing real property. From the fundamental concepts of possession and tenure to the intricacies of property transactions and proprietary rights...
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UOL Family Law
Family Law offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles governing familial relationships and domestic affairs. In this course, students will delve into various aspects of family law, from the formalities and implications of mar...
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UOL Commercial Law
Commercial Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal frameworks governing commercial transactions. This course explores various aspects of commercial law, ranging from the nature of personal property to the i...
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UOL Administrative Law
Administrative Law provides students with a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles and doctrines that govern the actions and decisions of public authorities. This course aims to equip students with a nuanced understanding of administrative...
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UOL EU Law
EU Law offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal framework governing the European Union. This course aims to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the key principles, institutions, and legal instruments that shape EU law. ...
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UOL Equity and Trusts
Equity and Trusts provides students with an in-depth exploration of the principles and doctrines that underpin equity and the law of trusts. This course aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the equitable principles that supplement and som...
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UOL Company Law
Company Law provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal framework governing businesses and corporations. This course delves into the intricacies of company law, covering topics from the fundamental principles of business organis...
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UOL Jurisprudence and Legal Theory
Jurisprudence and Legal Theory offers students a profound exploration into the philosophical underpinnings of law. This course delves into the nature and theories of jurisprudence, examining foundational questions about the essence of law, the moral ...
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UOL Evidence
Evidence offers a comprehensive exploration of the principles and rules governing the presentation and evaluation of evidence within the legal context. In the pursuit of justice, the reliability and admissibility of evidence are paramount. This cours...
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UOL Intellectual Property
Intellectual Property provides a comprehensive exploration of the legal frameworks surrounding intellectual property rights. In a rapidly evolving global landscape, intellectual property has become a critical aspect of legal practice, protecting the ...
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UOL Conflict of Laws
Conflict of Laws offers a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles that govern situations involving legal issues spanning multiple jurisdictions. In an increasingly interconnected world, conflicts of laws arise when legal matters have intern...
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UOL Wills and Administration of Estates
Wills and Administration of Estates offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles surrounding succession, wills, and the administration of estates. In a society where the transfer of assets and wealth is a critical aspect of leg...
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UOL International Commercial Law
International Commercial Law provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal frameworks governing international commercial transactions. In an era of globalised commerce, this course delves into the intricacies of international sale...
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UOL Solicitors Accounts and Ethics
Solicitors Accounts and Ethics is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the ethical and financial responsibilities inherent in the legal profession, particularly for solicitors. This course explores the regulatory framewo...
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UOL Criminal Practice
Criminal Practice is designed to provide students with an in-depth exploration of the practical aspects of criminal law, procedure, and litigation. This course aims to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to navigate the complexitie...
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UOL Dispute Resolution
Dispute Resolution is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in resolving civil disputes within the legal system. Students will gain insights into the procedural intricacies, legal pri...
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UOL English Legal System
English Legal System provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal foundations and structures that define the English legal system. This course aims to acquaint students with the historical evolution of the Common Law tradition, t...
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UOL Constitutional Law
Constitutional Law provides students with an in-depth exploration of the fundamental principles that underpin the UK's constitutional framework. This course aims to develop a nuanced understanding of the constitution, the separation of powers, t...
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