Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that every individual is entitled to, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status. These rights are considered to be inherent to all human beings, and they are essential for human dignity, justice, and equality.
The concept of human rights is rooted in various philosophical, religious, and legal traditions throughout history. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, is considered to be the foundational document of modern human rights law. It sets out a range of rights and freedoms that are widely recognised as universal, including the right to life, liberty, and security of person, freedom of thought and expression, and the right to a fair trial.
Human rights are typically divided into two categories: civil and political rights, and economic, social, and cultural rights. Civil and political rights include freedoms such as the right to vote, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to a fair trial. Economic, social, and cultural rights include the right to education, the right to work and fair wages, and the right to healthcare.
The protection and promotion of human rights is a crucial element of ensuring social justice, equality, and human dignity. International human rights law provides a framework for protecting and promoting human rights at the national and international levels. It establishes legal standards and mechanisms for holding governments and individuals accountable for human rights violations, and provides a means for victims to seek redress and justice.