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EU Law offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal framework governing the European Union. This course aims to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the key principles, institutions, and legal instruments that shape EU law. From the foundational treaties to the complexities of free movement and competition policy, students will gain valuable insights into the legal dynamics of the European Union.

1. Introduction

The introductory module sets the stage by providing an overview of the European Union and its legal framework. Students explore the historical context, the evolution of the EU, and the foundational principles that guide the Union's legal and political structures.

2. EU Treaties

EU treaties form the constitutional basis of the European Union. This module delves into the primary treaties that have shaped the EU, including the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Students analyse the legal significance, structure, and amendments of these treaties.

3. EU Institutions

The institutions of the European Union play a crucial role in its functioning. Students explore the composition, functions, and interplay of institutions such as the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Court of Justice. The module also examines the decision-making processes within these institutions.

4. Brexit

The module on Brexit addresses the legal and political implications of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. Students analyse the negotiations, the withdrawal agreement, and the ongoing legal and economic consequences of Brexit on both the UK and the EU.

5. EU Legal System

The EU operates under a distinctive legal system. Students explore the dual legal orders of the EU and its Member States, the principles of supremacy and direct effect, and the relationship between EU law and national legal systems.

6. Sources of EU Law

Understanding the sources of EU law is essential for legal practitioners in the EU. This module covers the diverse sources of EU law, including treaties, regulations, directives, decisions, and the role of general principles of law.

7. EU Law Making

EU law-making involves a complex interplay of institutions and procedures. Students explore the legislative process within the EU, including the roles of the European Parliament, the Council, and the Commission. The module also covers the consultation and co-decision procedures.

8. Trade Harmonisation

Trade harmonisation is a key aspect of the EU's single market. Students examine the legal mechanisms employed to harmonise laws and regulations across Member States to facilitate the free movement of goods and services.

9. Primacy of EU Law

The principle of the primacy of EU law is fundamental to the functioning of the Union. This module explores the legal foundations and implications of the doctrine of primacy, which establishes the supremacy of EU law over conflicting national laws.

10. State Liability

When Member States breach EU law, the principle of state liability comes into play. Students analyse the legal framework for holding Member States liable for damages resulting from a breach of EU law, including the conditions and limitations.

11. Free Movement of Goods

The free movement of goods is a cornerstone of the EU single market. This module covers the legal principles and mechanisms that ensure the unrestricted flow of goods across Member States, addressing issues such as customs duties, quantitative restrictions, and technical barriers.

12. Freedom of Services and Establishment

The EU aims to facilitate the freedom of services and establishment across borders. Students explore the legal frameworks that underpin the rights of individuals and businesses to provide services or establish themselves in other Member States.

13. Free Movement of Capital

Free movement of capital is integral to the EU's economic objectives. This module examines the legal principles and mechanisms that allow for the free movement of capital across borders, addressing issues of capital controls and restrictions.

14. Free Movement of Persons

The free movement of persons is a core principle of the EU. Students explore the legal frameworks that govern the rights of individuals to live, work, and move freely within the EU, including the rights of EU citizens and third-country nationals.

15. Competition Policy

Competition policy is vital for ensuring fair competition within the EU. This module covers the legal principles and tools employed to prevent anti-competitive practices, including antitrust laws, merger control, and state aid regulations.

16. EU Human Rights

The EU places a strong emphasis on human rights. Students explore the legal frameworks and mechanisms for protecting human rights within the EU, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the role of the European Court of Human Rights.

17. Retained EU Law

As a result of Brexit, the UK retained certain aspects of EU law. This module examines the concept of retained EU law, its legal status, and how it coexists with new UK legislation.

By exploring topics such as treaties, institutions, legal systems, and specific areas of EU law like free movement and competition policy, students develop analytical skills essential for engaging with the complexities of EU law. This course not only provides a solid foundation in EU law but also encourages students to critically assess the impact of legal principles on the EU's political, economic, and social landscape.

Check out our exam-focused EU Law notes now.

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Yale University

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University of Buckingham

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Statutory Provisions

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Case Summaries

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Rules and Exceptions

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Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

Case Law

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Law Essay Guide

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Legal Research

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