Brexit Timeline

19 July 2011
The European Union Act 2011 received royal assent, requiring a referendum be held on amendments of the Treaty on European Union or the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

23 January 2013
Prime Minister David Cameron promised to hold a referendum on Britain's membership in the European Union if the Conservative Party wins the next general election.

7 May 2015
The Conservative Party won a majority in the general election, and David Cameron was re-elected as Prime Minister.

20 February 2016
Cameron announced that a referendum on Britain's membership in the EU would be held on June 23, 2016.

23 June 2016
The referendum was held, and 51.9% of voters chose to leave the EU.

13 July 2016
Theresa May became the new Prime Minister, replacing Cameron.

29 March 2017
The UK triggered Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, officially beginning the process of leaving the EU.

8 December 2017
The EU and UK reached an agreement on the terms of the UK's withdrawal.

28 June 2018
The EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018 was granted Royal Assent, repealing the European Communities Act 1972 and requiring parliamentary approval for any withdrawal agreement negotiated between the UK and the EU.

14 November 2018
The UK and EU reached a draft agreement on the terms of their future relationship.

15 January 2019
The UK Parliament votes against the withdrawal agreement, causing political turmoil.

29 March 2019
The UK was scheduled to leave the EU, but the deadline was extended due to the UK Parliament's rejection of the withdrawal agreement.

24 May 2019
Theresa May announced her resignation as Prime Minister.

23 July 2019
Boris Johnson became the new Prime Minister.

17 October 2019
The UK and EU reached a new withdrawal agreement, but the UK Parliament delayed a vote on it.

12 December 2019
The UK held a general election, and Boris Johnson's Conservative Party won a large majority.

23 January 2020
The EU (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020 received Royal Assent, making legal provision for ratifying the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement and incorporating it into UK law.

24 January 2020
The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement was signed on 24 January 2020, setting the terms of the withdrawal of the UK from the EU and Euratom.

31 January 2020
The UK officially left the EU and entered a transition period.

24 December 2020
The UK and EU reached a post-Brexit trade deal, avoiding a no-deal scenario.

31 December 2020
The transition period ended and the UK left the EU single market and customs union.

1 January 2021
The post-Brexit trade deal took effect, marking the start of a new relationship between the UK and the EU.
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