Charter of United Nations

Charter of United Nations

The Charter of United Nations (UN Charter) refers to the foundational document of the United Nations, which serves as the organisation's constitution. It was signed on June 26, 1945, in San Francisco and came into effect on October 24, 1945. The UN Charter outlines the purposes, principles, structure, and functioning of the United Nations.

Purposes: The UN Charter identifies the primary purposes of the United Nations, which include maintaining international peace and security, promoting friendly relations among nations, fostering cooperation to solve global problems, and advancing respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Principles: The Charter sets forth the principles that guide the work of the United Nations, such as sovereign equality of member states, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in domestic affairs, respect for human rights, and the prohibition of the use of force except in self-defence or when authorised by the UN Security Council.

Membership: The UN Charter establishes the criteria and procedures for membership in the United Nations. Initially, there were 51 founding member states, and today, the UN has 193 member states. Membership is open to all peace-loving states that accept the obligations of the Charter and are willing to fulfil them.

Organs: The Charter outlines the structure and functions of the principal organs of the United Nations. These include the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council (currently inactive), the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. Each organ has specific roles and responsibilities in addressing various aspects of global governance.

Security Council: The Charter establishes the UN Security Council as the primary organ responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, including five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) with veto power and ten non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms.

Peacekeeping: The Charter provides the framework for UN peacekeeping operations, allowing the Security Council to deploy peacekeepers to help countries resolve conflicts and maintain peace. Peacekeeping missions are authorised by the Security Council and are carried out by troops and personnel contributed by member states.

Amendments: The UN Charter outlines the procedures for amending its provisions. Amendments require approval from two-thirds of the General Assembly and ratification by two-thirds of the member states, including all five permanent members of the Security Council.

The UN Charter serves as the guiding document for the work of the United Nations, providing the basis for international cooperation, collective security, and the promotion of peace, human rights, and development globally.
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