Green and White Papers

Parliamentary law making involves a complex process of drafting, scrutinising and passing legislation. In the United Kingdom, this process is governed by a set of rules and procedures known as parliamentary procedure. The process begins with the publication of Green and White papers, which are important tools used in the development of new legislation.

Green papers are consultation documents published by the government that set out various policy proposals and invite comments and feedback from the public and other interested parties. The purpose of a Green paper is to stimulate discussion and debate around a particular policy issue, and to gather information and ideas that can be used to develop new legislation.

White papers are policy documents that set out the government's final proposals for a new piece of legislation. They are based on the feedback received during the consultation process and take into account any changes that have been made as a result of that feedback. White papers often include draft legislation, which is open to further consultation before it is introduced to Parliament.

Once a White paper has been published, the actual process of drafting legislation begins. Bills are introduced in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, and must pass through several stages of debate and scrutiny before they can become law. The first reading is a formal stage where the bill is presented and the title is read out, but no debate takes place. The second reading is where the bill is debated in principle, and members can make speeches in support of or against the bill. If the bill passes the second reading, it moves on to the committee stage, where a detailed examination of the bill takes place. During this stage, amendments may be proposed and debated before being voted on.

After the committee stage, the bill moves on to the report stage, where any further amendments are debated and voted on. Finally, the bill is given its third reading, where it is debated and voted on in its final form. If the bill passes its third reading, it is sent to the other house of Parliament, where it goes through the same stages of scrutiny and debate. If both houses of Parliament agree on the final form of the bill, it is sent to the monarch for Royal Assent, after which it becomes law.
Back to blog
UOL Case Bank

UOL Case Bank

Upon joining, you become a valuable UOL student and gain instant access to over 2,100 case summaries. UOL Case Bank is constantly expanding. Speed up your revision with us now.

Subscribe Now

Where are our students from?

Yale University
Council of Europe
Baker Mckenzie 
University of Chicago
Columbia University
New York University
University of Michigan 
University College London (UCL)
London School of Economics (LSE)
King’s College London (KCL)
University of London
University of Manchester
University of Zurich
University of York
Brandeis University
University of Exeter
University of Sheffield
Boston University
University of Washington
University of Leeds
University of Law
Royal Holloway, University of London 
Birkbeck, University of London
SOAS, University of London
University of Kent
University of Hull
Queen’s University Belfast
Toronto Metropolitan University
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
University of Buckingham

  • Criminal Practice

    Diagrams and Charts

    Our carefully designed diagrams and charts will guide you through complex legal issues.

  • Criminal Law

    Clear and Succinct Definitions

    Key concepts are concisely defined to help you understand legal topics quickly.

  • Property Law

    Statutory Provisions

    Statutory provisions are provided side by side with legal concepts to help you swiftly locate the relevant legislation.

  • Public Law

    Case Summaries

    We have summarised important cases for you so that you don't need to read long and boring cases.

  • Evidence

    Rules and Exceptions

    Rules and exceptions are clearly listed so that you know when a rule applies and when it doesn't.

  • Company Law


    Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

  • Case Law

    Case law is provided side by side with legal concepts so that you know how legal principles and precedents were established.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Law Essay Guide

    You will learn essential law exam skills and essay writing techniques that are not taught in class.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Problem Question Guide

    We will show you how to answer problem questions step by step to achieve first-class results.

  • Conflict of Laws

    Structured Explanations

    Complex legal concepts are broken down into concise and digestible bullet point explanations.

  • Legal System and Method

    Legal Research

    You will learn legal research techniques with our study guide and become a proficient legal researcher.

  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory


    All essential concepts, principles, and case law are included so that you can answer exam questions quickly.