Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949

The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 are two pieces of legislation in the United Kingdom that significantly reformed the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two chambers of the UK Parliament.

The Parliament Act of 1911 was passed in response to the constitutional crisis that arose in 1909 when the Conservative-dominated House of Lords rejected the "People's Budget" proposed by the Liberal government of Prime Minister Herbert Asquith. The Parliament Act of 1911 removed the power of the House of Lords to veto legislation that had been passed by the House of Commons. Instead, it introduced a mechanism whereby the House of Lords could delay a bill for up to two years, after which it would automatically become law without the House of Lords' consent. The Parliament Act of 1911 also reduced the maximum term of a Parliament from seven years to five years.

The Parliament Act of 1949 further limited the power of the House of Lords. It reduced the maximum period of delay for non-financial bills from two years to one, and it removed the House of Lords' power to veto any bill that related to the budget or taxation. The 1949 Act also made it clear that the Parliament Act of 1911 applied to all bills, including those that originated in the House of Lords.

Overall, the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 helped to establish the principle that the House of Commons, as the elected chamber of Parliament, should have primacy over the House of Lords in the legislative process. These Acts were important steps in the development of the modern British constitution and the evolution of the UK's system of parliamentary democracy.
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