Res Judicata

Res Judicata is a legal doctrine that refers to the principle of finality and preclusion of claims. It prevents the same parties from re-litigating the same issue that has already been finally determined by a court. The doctrine consists of two components:

Claim preclusion: Claim preclusion, also known as "res judicata in the strict sense," bars a party from bringing a claim that has already been adjudicated on the merits in a previous lawsuit between the same parties or their privies (parties having a part or interest in the matter). Once a final judgment has been reached, the claim cannot be brought again, even if new evidence or legal arguments are discovered later.

Issue preclusion: Issue preclusion, also called "collateral estoppel," prevents relitigation of specific issues that were actually and necessarily determined in a prior lawsuit between the same parties or their privies. Once an issue has been conclusively decided, it cannot be re-litigated in subsequent cases involving the same parties.

Res judicata promotes finality, judicial efficiency, and prevents repetitive litigation. It ensures that once a matter has been decided by a court, it cannot be endlessly challenged in subsequent lawsuits. However, it is important to note that res judicata is subject to certain exceptions and limitations, and its application may vary depending on the jurisdiction and specific circumstances of the case.
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