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UOLLB and UOL study notes are suitable for anyone studying common law at any university or preparing for law exams, including LLB, PGDL, GDL, LPC, LLM, MA Law, MLaw, and SQE.

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Diagrams and Charts

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Clear and Succinct Definitions

Key concepts are concisely defined to help you understand legal topics quickly.

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Statutory provisions are provided side by side with legal concepts to help you swiftly locate the relevant legislation.

Case Summaries

We have summarised important cases for you so that you don't need to read long and boring cases.

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Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

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UOL Blog

What is Tort?
A tort is a civil wrong or breach of a legal duty that causes harm or loss to another person, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act. The primary purpose of tort law is to provide relief to injured parties for harms ...
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Roles in Legal Proceedings
Understanding the various roles in legal proceedings is essential for comprehending how the judicial system operates. Each role is integral to the process, ensuring justice and fairness. Here is an in-depth explanation of each key role.LitigantA liti...
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Real Property vs Personal Property vs Intellectual Property
In law, the concept of property spans a wide array of assets. To effectively navigate legal rights, obligations, and transactions, it is essential to understand the different types of property: real property, personal property, and intellectual prope...
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Examples of Strict Liability Crimes
In criminal law, strict liability refers to offences for which the prosecution does not need to prove mens rea, or a guilty mind, in relation to one or more elements of the actus reus, or guilty act. In other words, for strict liability crimes, it is...
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Probate vs Succession vs Inheritance
When a loved one passes away, the grief and mourning are often accompanied by the need to manage their estate. This involves a series of legal processes that ensure the deceased’s assets are handled and distributed according to their wishes and the l...
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Company Stakeholders and Their Interests
Stakeholders are any individuals, groups, or organisations that have an interest in or are affected by the actions and performance of a business. They play a pivotal role in shaping the direction, success, and sustainability of companies. These ...
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What is Canon Law?
Canon law, the system of laws and regulations that governs Christian churches, is crucial for maintaining order and discipline within religious communities. Unlike civil law, which governs the secular aspects of life in society, canon law deals with ...
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Promissory Estoppel vs Proprietary Estoppel
Promissory estoppel and proprietary estoppel are both legal doctrines that prevent a person from going back on their word under certain conditions, but they apply in different contexts and have different requirements.Promissory Estoppel is generally ...
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Agency Theory in Company Law
The agency theory is a significant concept in corporate law and governance that explains the relationship and conflicts between principals (such as shareholders) and agents (such as company executives). This theory is essential for understanding vari...
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Organic Theory in Company Law
The organic theory is a fundamental aspect of corporate law, providing a framework to understand how legal responsibilities are attributed to corporations, which are abstract legal entities. This theory allows corporations to be held accountable for ...
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Pros and Cons of Separation of Powers
Separation of powers is a foundational principle in the constitution of democratic states, designed to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single entity and thus guard against tyranny. This principle divides the state's governance in...
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Legal Professional Privilege
Legal professional privilege is a fundamental principle within the legal system that protects the confidentiality of communications between legal professionals and their clients. This privilege is crucial in ensuring the right to a fair trial and pro...
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Power of Attorney
Power of Attorney (POA) is crucial for anyone who wishes to ensure their affairs are handled according to their wishes, should they become unable to manage them personally. This legal mechanism allows one person, known as the principal, to grant anot...
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Officious Bystander Test
The officious bystander test is a legal principle used in the common law, particularly in the context of contract law, to determine whether an implied term should form part of a contract. This test is applied to ascertain if a term is so obvious that...
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Five Grounds for Judicial Review
Judicial review stands as a cornerstone of administrative law, providing a mechanism through which the decisions of public bodies can be challenged in court. This process ensures that such decisions are made legally, fairly, and reasonably. While the...
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Why Is Proportionality Not a Standalone Ground for Judicial Review?
The principle of proportionality in judicial review serves as a tool for ensuring that decisions made by public authorities are reasonable and balanced, especially in the context of affecting individual rights and freedoms. While important, proportio...
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Purpose of Contract Law
The purpose of contract law is multifaceted, serving as the foundation for legal agreements and transactions across various aspects of society, business, and personal interactions. Its primary purposes include:Creating legal framework for agreements:...
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Referendums vs Plebiscites
In democratic governance, referendums and plebiscites are pivotal tools that empower the populace to have a direct say on various issues. While on the surface, both mechanisms seem to serve the same purpose—allowing the public to vote on specific mat...
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In global governance and humanitarian efforts, a myriad of organisations play crucial roles in shaping policies, delivering aid, and fostering international cooperation. Among these, Non-Governmental Organisations, International Non-Governmental Orga...
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Why Is Civil Law Better Than Common Law?
Arguing that civil law is superior to common law involves considering the characteristics that distinguish civil law systems and the advantages these characteristics can provide. Civil law, known for its comprehensive codification of statutes and pri...
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Why Is Common Law Better Than Civil Law?
Arguing that common law is superior to civil law involves highlighting aspects where the common law system may offer distinct advantages. This comparison often revolves around the flexibility, adaptability, and the role of judicial precedent within c...
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Is Common Law Better Than Civil Law?
The debate on whether common law is superior to civil law, or vice versa, encompasses a rich discussion grounded in centuries of legal tradition and practice across different nations. At its heart, this debate probes the efficacy, adaptability, and f...
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Principles of Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. It determines which court system should properly adjudicate a dispute or a case, based on factors such as geography, subject matter, and the parties involved. The p...
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Arguments for and against Criminalising Public Order Crimes
Public order crimes, also known as victimless crimes, involve acts that do not directly harm the person or property of another, but are considered to harm the community or society in general. These can include drug use, prostitution, public drunkenne...
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Prohibition on Discrimination on Grounds of Race: Fundamental to Human Rights
In the panorama of human rights, the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race stands as a cornerstone principle, embodying the essence of equality and justice. This principle asserts that all individuals, regardless of their racial or eth...
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Case Summaries

Salomon v Salomon [1896]
Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd [1896] UKHL 1, [1897] AC 22 is a cornerstone of UK company law, decisively affirming the principle of corporate personality. The House of Lords' unanimous ruling established that creditors of an insolvent company...
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Sevilleja v Marex Financial Ltd [2020]
Sevilleja v Marex Financial Ltd [2020] UKSC 31 was a significant case concerning company law and specifically addressed the application of the rule against reflective loss. This rule, which prevents shareholders from claiming losses that merely refle...
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R (Privacy International) v Investigatory Powers Tribunal [2019]
R (on the application of Privacy International) v Investigatory Powers Tribunal and others [2019] UKSC 22 is a significant decision in UK constitutional and administrative law, especially concerning the extent to which the jurisdiction of the High Co...
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Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and Others v Switzerland [2024]
Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and Others v Switzerland [2024] ECHR 087, delivered by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), is a landmark judgment addressing the issue of climate change under the European Convention on Hum...
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Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2007]
C-278/05 Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2007] represents a significant intersection of UK insolvency law, labour law, and EU law, focusing on the protection of employees' pension rights upon the insolvency of their employer. The c...
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Southern Foundries v Shirlaw [1940]
The case of Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd v Shirlaw [1940] AC 701 is a landmark decision in English contract law and company law. It is celebrated for elucidating the concept of implied terms in contracts, particularly through MacKinnon LJ's officiou...
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Clinton v Jones [1997]
Clinton v Jones [1997] 520 US 681 is a landmark ruling that unequivocally declared that a sitting President is not immune from civil litigation for acts done before taking office and unrelated to the office. This decision represented a significant mo...
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Nixon v Fitzgerald [1982]
Nixon v Fitzgerald 457 US 731 [1982] is a cornerstone in the legal framework surrounding presidential immunity within the United States. This case unequivocally established the precedent that the President of the United States is granted absolute imm...
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R v Lucas [1981]
R v Lucas (Lyabode Ruth) [1981] QB 720 established the Lucas direction which stands as a guiding principle within criminal trials, particularly in how juries should interpret evidence concerning lies told by a defendant. This legal doctrine, establis...
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Wood v Waddington [2014]
Wood v Waddington [2014] EWHC 1358 examined the scope and application of the implied grant of easements under Section 62 of the Law of Property Act 1925 (LPA 1925), departing from the precedents set in earlier cases such as Long v Gowlett and Kent v ...
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Smith and Snipes Hall Farm v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949]
Smith and Snipes Hall Farm Ltd v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949] 2 KB 500 is a significant English land law and contract law appeal decision. The case, decided by Denning LJ, establishes key principles related to positive covenants, privity of c...
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Borman v Griffith [1930]
Borman v Griffith [1930] 1 Ch 493 is a significant case in English property law, particularly regarding the implication of easements under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows.The case involved a lease agreement between the tenant and the landlord for a lo...
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AG Securities v Vaughan; Antoniades v Villiers [1988]
AG Securities v Vaughan and Antoniades v Villiers [1988] UKHL 8 were pivotal House of Lords cases that clarified the role of exclusive possession in determining the nature of a lease under English land law. These rulings provided crucial guidance on ...
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R (G) v Governors of X School [2011]
R (G) v Governors of X School [2011] UKSC 30 examined whether the claimant's rights under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) were engaged in a disciplinary hearing conducted by X School. The claimant argued that the s...
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R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008]
R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008] UKHL 60 revolved around the Serious Fraud Office's (SFO) decision to terminate an investigation into alleged bribery involving BAE Systems, a major defence contractor, and the S...
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Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949]
Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949] AC 386 revolved around the attribution of injuries suffered by a nine-year-old boy solely to the negligence of the respondent's employee and whether there was contributory negligence on the part of the child.T...
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W v Essex County Council [2001]
W v Essex County Council [2001] 2 AC 592 is a legal case that explored the concept of primary and secondary victims in the context of psychiatric injury resulting from negligence. The case involved involuntary participants placed in a situation by th...
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Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000]
Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000] 1 WLR 1082 is a significant case that delves into the foreseeability of harm in negligence claims, particularly when the claimant is a child. The central issue revolved around the duty of care owed by the...
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Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008]
Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008] 1 AC 281 marked a significant development in the law regarding the recovery of damages for psychiatric illness. The central principle established in this case is that for psychiatric illness to be recove...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967]
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v The Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967] 1 AC 617, commonly referred to as The Wagon Mound (No 2), established a key legal principle regarding the relevance of the seriousness of possible harm in determining the extent of a par...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961]
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961] AC 388, commonly known as The Wagon Mound (No 1), established a crucial principle in the law of negligence—that for damage or injury to be actionable, it must be reasonably foresee...
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R v Pitham and Hehl [1997]
R v Pitham and Hehl [1997] 65 Cr App R 45 revolved around whether offering something for sale that one does not own, even without physically moving the property, constitutes appropriation under the Theft Act 1968.A person, referred to as M, sold furn...
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Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975]
Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975] QB 773 clarified the requirements for the offence of procuring, emphasising that shared intention between the person procuring an offence and the person committing it is not a necessary element.The facts involved ...
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R v Bainbridge [1960]
R v Bainbridge [1960] 1 QB 129 clarified the requirement for guilt in aiding and abetting, stating that the accessory must have knowledge of the intention of the principal to commit an offence of the type that was actually committed.The case involved...
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Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991]
Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991] Crim LR 763 examined the mens rea (mental element) required for the offence of procuring. The central premise established was that the mens rea of procuring entails both the intention to perform the act that significan...
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Law Modules

Sequence of Study for Law Modules
The study sequence below is designed to give you a comprehensive understanding of both the foundational and advanced principles of law, ensuring that you develop the necessary analytical and critical thinking skills, gain familiarity with legal termi...
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UOL Employment Law
Employment Law is a vital field that governs the relationship between employers and employees, setting out the rights and duties of both parties. This module, broken down into twenty-two comprehensive topics, offers a detailed exploration of the intr...
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UOL Law Modules
Get our high-performance law notes to help you smash your law exams before it is too late. With a proven track record of excellence, we have helped thousands of law students succeed in law school and pass professional exams. You will learn more effic...
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UOL International Foundation Programme (IFP)
The UOL International Foundation Programme (IFP) is meticulously designed to prepare aspiring law students for the rigorous academic challenges they will face at university. It covers a comprehensive range of modules, each targeting a crucial area of...
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UOL International Programme
Our UOL International Programme offers cost-effective and exam-focused learning materials for law students, covering a wide array of subjects that are pivotal for a profound understanding of law. Below is a detailed overview of each module across the...
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UOL Private International Law
Private International Law, also known as Conflict of Laws, deals with legal rules and principles that determine how the law of various jurisdictions applies to cross-border situations involving private individuals and entities. This module is designe...
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UOL International Human Rights Law
International Human Rights Law covers a broad and comprehensive range of topics that are essential for understanding the global landscape of human rights law. Each topic builds upon the others to provide a foundational and advanced understanding of t...
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UOL Public International Law
Public International Law is a comprehensive field that governs the legal relations between sovereign states and other international actors. This module covers a wide range of topics that form the foundation and application of international legal prin...
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UOL International Protection of Human Rights
International Protection of Human Rights explores the nature of human rights, the legal mechanisms established to enforce them, and key thematic areas such as the prohibition of torture, racial discrimination, and the rights of refugees. This module ...
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UOL Modules
LLB programmes serve as the gateway for aspiring legal professionals to delve into the complexities of law and its multifaceted dimensions. The curriculum is meticulously designed to equip students not only with the foundational knowledge of legal pr...
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UOL Contract Law
Contract Law provides a comprehensive exploration of the fundamental principles that govern contractual relationships. It is designed to equip students with a deep understanding of the legal framework surrounding contracts, enabling them to navigate ...
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UOL Criminal Law
Criminal Law offers an in-depth exploration of the foundational principles that govern criminal liability, examining key concepts such as actus reus, mens rea, and the various criminal offences. This course is designed to provide students with a comp...
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UOL Public Law
Public Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the constitutional and legal framework that governs the relationships between individuals and the state. This course explores key principles such as parliamentary sovere...
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UOL Legal System and Method
Legal System and Method is a foundational exploration of the fundamental components that constitute the legal system in England and Wales. This course aims to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the common law tradition, constituti...
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UOL Tort Law
Tort Law is a comprehensive exploration of the principles governing civil wrongs in the British legal system. This course seeks to equip students with a detailed understanding of tortious liability, its various forms, and the legal mechanisms involve...
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UOL Property Law
Property Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal principles governing real property. From the fundamental concepts of possession and tenure to the intricacies of property transactions and proprietary rights...
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UOL Family Law
Family Law offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles governing familial relationships and domestic affairs. In this course, students will delve into various aspects of family law, from the formalities and implications of mar...
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UOL Commercial Law
Commercial Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal frameworks governing commercial transactions. This course explores various aspects of commercial law, ranging from the nature of personal property to the i...
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UOL Administrative Law
Administrative Law provides students with a comprehensive exploration of the legal principles and doctrines that govern the actions and decisions of public authorities. This course aims to equip students with a nuanced understanding of administrative...
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EU Law offers students a comprehensive exploration of the legal framework governing the European Union. This course aims to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the key principles, institutions, and legal instruments that shape EU law. ...
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UOL Equity and Trusts
Equity and Trusts provides students with an in-depth exploration of the principles and doctrines that underpin equity and the law of trusts. This course aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the equitable principles that supplement and som...
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UOL Company Law
Company Law provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal framework governing businesses and corporations. This course delves into the intricacies of company law, covering topics from the fundamental principles of business organis...
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UOL Jurisprudence and Legal Theory
Jurisprudence and Legal Theory offers students a profound exploration into the philosophical underpinnings of law. This course delves into the nature and theories of jurisprudence, examining foundational questions about the essence of law, the moral ...
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UOL Evidence
Evidence offers a comprehensive exploration of the principles and rules governing the presentation and evaluation of evidence within the legal context. In the pursuit of justice, the reliability and admissibility of evidence are paramount. This cours...
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UOL Intellectual Property
Intellectual Property provides a comprehensive exploration of the legal frameworks surrounding intellectual property rights. In a rapidly evolving global landscape, intellectual property has become a critical aspect of legal practice, protecting the ...
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