International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is an international human rights treaty that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1966. It entered into force in 1976 and has been ratified by a large number of countries. The ICCPR, along with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, forms the International Bill of Human Rights, which sets out the fundamental rights and freedoms that should be universally protected.

The ICCPR is a legally binding treaty that aims to protect and promote civil and political rights. It recognises the inherent dignity and equal rights of all individuals and covers a wide range of civil and political rights, including:

Right to life: The ICCPR recognises the inherent right to life and prohibits arbitrary deprivation of life.

Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment: The covenant prohibits torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.

Right to liberty and security of person: Individuals have the right to be free from arbitrary arrest or detention and to be informed promptly of the reasons for their arrest or detention.

Right to a fair trial: The ICCPR guarantees the right to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal, and the presumption of innocence until proven guilty.

Freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and belief: The covenant protects the freedom of individuals to hold and express their thoughts, beliefs, and religious convictions.

Freedom of expression: The ICCPR safeguards the right to freedom of expression, including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas.

Right to peaceful assembly: Individuals have the right to peaceful assembly and to participate in public affairs.

Right to freedom of association: The ICCPR protects the right to form and join associations, including political parties and trade unions.

Equality before the law: The covenant guarantees the right to equal protection under the law and prohibits discrimination on various grounds, such as race, sex, religion, or national origin.

Right to privacy: Individuals have the right to privacy, including protection against arbitrary or unlawful interference with their privacy, family, home, or correspondence.

The ICCPR has played a significant role in shaping international human rights standards and provides a framework for promoting and protecting civil and political rights globally. States that have ratified the ICCPR are legally bound to respect, protect, and fulfil the rights enshrined in the treaty. They are required to take legislative, judicial, and administrative measures to ensure the effective enjoyment of these rights by individuals within their jurisdiction. The ICCPR also establishes a committee, the Human Rights Committee, which monitors the implementation of the covenant by states parties through regular reporting and dialogue.
Back to blog

UOL Case Bank

Upon joining, you become a valuable UOL student and gain instant access to over 2,100 case summaries. UOL Case Bank is constantly expanding. Speed up your revision with us now.

Subscribe Now

Where are our students from?

Yale University
Council of Europe
Baker Mckenzie 
University of Chicago
Columbia University
New York University
University of Michigan 
University College London (UCL)
London School of Economics (LSE)
King’s College London (KCL)
University of London
University of Manchester
University of Zurich
University of York
Brandeis University
University of Exeter
University of Sheffield
Boston University
University of Washington
University of Leeds
University of Law
Royal Holloway, University of London 
Birkbeck, University of London
SOAS, University of London
University of Kent
University of Hull
Queen’s University Belfast
Toronto Metropolitan University
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
University of Buckingham
ESSEC Business School

  • Criminal Practice

    Diagrams and Charts

    Our carefully designed diagrams and charts will guide you through complex legal issues.

  • Criminal Law

    Clear and Succinct Definitions

    Key concepts are concisely defined to help you understand legal topics quickly.

  • Property Law

    Statutory Provisions

    Statutory provisions are provided side by side with legal concepts to help you swiftly locate the relevant legislation.

  • Public Law

    Case Summaries

    We have summarised important cases for you so that you don't need to read long and boring cases.

  • Evidence

    Rules and Exceptions

    Rules and exceptions are clearly listed so that you know when a rule applies and when it doesn't.

  • Company Law


    Legal terms and key concepts are explained at the beginning of each chapter to help you learn efficiently.

  • Case Law

    Case law is provided side by side with legal concepts so that you know how legal principles and precedents were established.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Law Essay Guide

    You will learn essential law exam skills and essay writing techniques that are not taught in class.

  • Law Exam Guide

    Problem Question Guide

    We will show you how to answer problem questions step by step to achieve first-class results.

  • Conflict of Laws

    Structured Explanations

    Complex legal concepts are broken down into concise and digestible bullet point explanations.

  • Legal System and Method

    Legal Research

    You will learn legal research techniques with our study guide and become a proficient legal researcher.

  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory


    All essential concepts, principles, and case law are included so that you can answer exam questions quickly.