Your Cart

Laws Consortium ⋆ Case Summaries ⋆ UK Law ⋆ US Law ⋆ EU Law ⋆ Legal Writing ⋆ Legal English

Laws Consortium ⋆ Case Summaries ⋆ UK Law ⋆ US Law ⋆ EU Law ⋆ Legal Writing ⋆ Legal English ⋆

Laws Consortium

What is Tort?
A tort is a civil wrong or breach of a legal duty that causes harm or loss to another person, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act. The primary purpose of tort law is to provide relief to injured parties for harms ...
Read More
Roles in Legal Proceedings
Understanding the various roles in legal proceedings is essential for comprehending how the judicial system operates. Each role is integral to the process, ensuring justice and fairness. Here is an in-depth explanation of each key role.LitigantA liti...
Read More
Real Property vs Personal Property vs Intellectual Property
In law, the concept of property spans a wide array of assets. To effectively navigate legal rights, obligations, and transactions, it is essential to understand the different types of property: real property, personal property, and intellectual prope...
Read More
Examples of Strict Liability Crimes
In criminal law, strict liability refers to offences for which the prosecution does not need to prove mens rea, or a guilty mind, in relation to one or more elements of the actus reus, or guilty act. In other words, for strict liability crimes, it is...
Read More
Probate vs Succession vs Inheritance
When a loved one passes away, the grief and mourning are often accompanied by the need to manage their estate. This involves a series of legal processes that ensure the deceased’s assets are handled and distributed according to their wishes and the l...
Read More
Company Stakeholders and Their Interests
Stakeholders are any individuals, groups, or organisations that have an interest in or are affected by the actions and performance of a business. They play a pivotal role in shaping the direction, success, and sustainability of companies. These ...
Read More
What is Canon Law?
Canon law, the system of laws and regulations that governs Christian churches, is crucial for maintaining order and discipline within religious communities. Unlike civil law, which governs the secular aspects of life in society, canon law deals with ...
Read More
Promissory Estoppel vs Proprietary Estoppel
Promissory estoppel and proprietary estoppel are both legal doctrines that prevent a person from going back on their word under certain conditions, but they apply in different contexts and have different requirements.Promissory Estoppel is generally ...
Read More
Agency Theory in Company Law
The agency theory is a significant concept in corporate law and governance that explains the relationship and conflicts between principals (such as shareholders) and agents (such as company executives). This theory is essential for understanding vari...
Read More
Organic Theory in Company Law
The organic theory is a fundamental aspect of corporate law, providing a framework to understand how legal responsibilities are attributed to corporations, which are abstract legal entities. This theory allows corporations to be held accountable for ...
Read More
Pros and Cons of Separation of Powers
Separation of powers is a foundational principle in the constitution of democratic states, designed to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single entity and thus guard against tyranny. This principle divides the state's governance in...
Read More
Legal Professional Privilege
Legal professional privilege is a fundamental principle within the legal system that protects the confidentiality of communications between legal professionals and their clients. This privilege is crucial in ensuring the right to a fair trial and pro...
Read More
Power of Attorney
Power of Attorney (POA) is crucial for anyone who wishes to ensure their affairs are handled according to their wishes, should they become unable to manage them personally. This legal mechanism allows one person, known as the principal, to grant anot...
Read More
Officious Bystander Test
The officious bystander test is a legal principle used in the common law, particularly in the context of contract law, to determine whether an implied term should form part of a contract. This test is applied to ascertain if a term is so obvious that...
Read More
Five Grounds for Judicial Review
Judicial review stands as a cornerstone of administrative law, providing a mechanism through which the decisions of public bodies can be challenged in court. This process ensures that such decisions are made legally, fairly, and reasonably. While the...
Read More
Why Is Proportionality Not a Standalone Ground for Judicial Review?
The principle of proportionality in judicial review serves as a tool for ensuring that decisions made by public authorities are reasonable and balanced, especially in the context of affecting individual rights and freedoms. While important, proportio...
Read More
Purpose of Contract Law
The purpose of contract law is multifaceted, serving as the foundation for legal agreements and transactions across various aspects of society, business, and personal interactions. Its primary purposes include:Creating legal framework for agreements:...
Read More
Referendums vs Plebiscites
In democratic governance, referendums and plebiscites are pivotal tools that empower the populace to have a direct say on various issues. While on the surface, both mechanisms seem to serve the same purpose—allowing the public to vote on specific mat...
Read More
NGO vs IGO vs INGO
In global governance and humanitarian efforts, a myriad of organisations play crucial roles in shaping policies, delivering aid, and fostering international cooperation. Among these, Non-Governmental Organisations, International Non-Governmental Orga...
Read More
Why Is Civil Law Better Than Common Law?
Arguing that civil law is superior to common law involves considering the characteristics that distinguish civil law systems and the advantages these characteristics can provide. Civil law, known for its comprehensive codification of statutes and pri...
Read More
Why Is Common Law Better Than Civil Law?
Arguing that common law is superior to civil law involves highlighting aspects where the common law system may offer distinct advantages. This comparison often revolves around the flexibility, adaptability, and the role of judicial precedent within c...
Read More
Is Common Law Better Than Civil Law?
The debate on whether common law is superior to civil law, or vice versa, encompasses a rich discussion grounded in centuries of legal tradition and practice across different nations. At its heart, this debate probes the efficacy, adaptability, and f...
Read More
Principles of Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. It determines which court system should properly adjudicate a dispute or a case, based on factors such as geography, subject matter, and the parties involved. The p...
Read More
Arguments for and against Criminalising Public Order Crimes
Public order crimes, also known as victimless crimes, involve acts that do not directly harm the person or property of another, but are considered to harm the community or society in general. These can include drug use, prostitution, public drunkenne...
Read More
Prohibition on Discrimination on Grounds of Race: Fundamental to Human Rights
In the panorama of human rights, the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race stands as a cornerstone principle, embodying the essence of equality and justice. This principle asserts that all individuals, regardless of their racial or eth...
Read More

Case Summaries

Salomon v Salomon [1896]
Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd [1896] UKHL 1, [1897] AC 22 is a cornerstone of UK company law, decisively affirming the principle of corporate personality. The House of Lords' unanimous ruling established that creditors of an insolvent company...
Read More
Sevilleja v Marex Financial Ltd [2020]
Sevilleja v Marex Financial Ltd [2020] UKSC 31 was a significant case concerning company law and specifically addressed the application of the rule against reflective loss. This rule, which prevents shareholders from claiming losses that merely refle...
Read More
R (Privacy International) v Investigatory Powers Tribunal [2019]
R (on the application of Privacy International) v Investigatory Powers Tribunal and others [2019] UKSC 22 is a significant decision in UK constitutional and administrative law, especially concerning the extent to which the jurisdiction of the High Co...
Read More
Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and Others v Switzerland [2024]
Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and Others v Switzerland [2024] ECHR 087, delivered by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), is a landmark judgment addressing the issue of climate change under the European Convention on Hum...
Read More
Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2007]
C-278/05 Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2007] represents a significant intersection of UK insolvency law, labour law, and EU law, focusing on the protection of employees' pension rights upon the insolvency of their employer. The c...
Read More
Southern Foundries v Shirlaw [1940]
The case of Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd v Shirlaw [1940] AC 701 is a landmark decision in English contract law and company law. It is celebrated for elucidating the concept of implied terms in contracts, particularly through MacKinnon LJ's officiou...
Read More
Clinton v Jones [1997]
Clinton v Jones [1997] 520 US 681 is a landmark ruling that unequivocally declared that a sitting President is not immune from civil litigation for acts done before taking office and unrelated to the office. This decision represented a significant mo...
Read More
Nixon v Fitzgerald [1982]
Nixon v Fitzgerald 457 US 731 [1982] is a cornerstone in the legal framework surrounding presidential immunity within the United States. This case unequivocally established the precedent that the President of the United States is granted absolute imm...
Read More
R v Lucas [1981]
R v Lucas (Lyabode Ruth) [1981] QB 720 established the Lucas direction which stands as a guiding principle within criminal trials, particularly in how juries should interpret evidence concerning lies told by a defendant. This legal doctrine, establis...
Read More
Wood v Waddington [2014]
Wood v Waddington [2014] EWHC 1358 examined the scope and application of the implied grant of easements under Section 62 of the Law of Property Act 1925 (LPA 1925), departing from the precedents set in earlier cases such as Long v Gowlett and Kent v ...
Read More
Smith and Snipes Hall Farm v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949]
Smith and Snipes Hall Farm Ltd v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949] 2 KB 500 is a significant English land law and contract law appeal decision. The case, decided by Denning LJ, establishes key principles related to positive covenants, privity of c...
Read More
Borman v Griffith [1930]
Borman v Griffith [1930] 1 Ch 493 is a significant case in English property law, particularly regarding the implication of easements under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows.The case involved a lease agreement between the tenant and the landlord for a lo...
Read More
AG Securities v Vaughan; Antoniades v Villiers [1988]
AG Securities v Vaughan and Antoniades v Villiers [1988] UKHL 8 were pivotal House of Lords cases that clarified the role of exclusive possession in determining the nature of a lease under English land law. These rulings provided crucial guidance on ...
Read More
R (G) v Governors of X School [2011]
R (G) v Governors of X School [2011] UKSC 30 examined whether the claimant's rights under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) were engaged in a disciplinary hearing conducted by X School. The claimant argued that the s...
Read More
R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008]
R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008] UKHL 60 revolved around the Serious Fraud Office's (SFO) decision to terminate an investigation into alleged bribery involving BAE Systems, a major defence contractor, and the S...
Read More
Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949]
Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949] AC 386 revolved around the attribution of injuries suffered by a nine-year-old boy solely to the negligence of the respondent's employee and whether there was contributory negligence on the part of the child.T...
Read More
W v Essex County Council [2001]
W v Essex County Council [2001] 2 AC 592 is a legal case that explored the concept of primary and secondary victims in the context of psychiatric injury resulting from negligence. The case involved involuntary participants placed in a situation by th...
Read More
Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000]
Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000] 1 WLR 1082 is a significant case that delves into the foreseeability of harm in negligence claims, particularly when the claimant is a child. The central issue revolved around the duty of care owed by the...
Read More
Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008]
Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008] 1 AC 281 marked a significant development in the law regarding the recovery of damages for psychiatric illness. The central principle established in this case is that for psychiatric illness to be recove...
Read More
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967]
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v The Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967] 1 AC 617, commonly referred to as The Wagon Mound (No 2), established a key legal principle regarding the relevance of the seriousness of possible harm in determining the extent of a par...
Read More
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961]
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961] AC 388, commonly known as The Wagon Mound (No 1), established a crucial principle in the law of negligence—that for damage or injury to be actionable, it must be reasonably foresee...
Read More
R v Pitham and Hehl [1997]
R v Pitham and Hehl [1997] 65 Cr App R 45 revolved around whether offering something for sale that one does not own, even without physically moving the property, constitutes appropriation under the Theft Act 1968.A person, referred to as M, sold furn...
Read More
Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975]
Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975] QB 773 clarified the requirements for the offence of procuring, emphasising that shared intention between the person procuring an offence and the person committing it is not a necessary element.The facts involved ...
Read More
R v Bainbridge [1960]
R v Bainbridge [1960] 1 QB 129 clarified the requirement for guilt in aiding and abetting, stating that the accessory must have knowledge of the intention of the principal to commit an offence of the type that was actually committed.The case involved...
Read More
Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991]
Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991] Crim LR 763 examined the mens rea (mental element) required for the offence of procuring. The central premise established was that the mens rea of procuring entails both the intention to perform the act that significan...
Read More

UK Law

Conveyancing Process for Selling and Buying Property
The conveyancing process involves a series of legal and administrative steps required to transfer the ownership of a property from one person to another. This process can be broken down into distinct stages for both selling and buying a property. Her...
Read More
Impact of Land Registration Act 2002 on Adverse Possession
The Land Registration Act 2002 (LRA 2002) significantly reformed the law of adverse possession, particularly affecting registered land. It aims to enhance the protection of registered landowners' interests by introducing a more structured and st...
Read More
English Criminal Litigation Process
The English criminal litigation process is a comprehensive and structured sequence of stages, from investigation to potential appeal. Each stage involves specific legal procedures and principles designed to safeguard the rights of all parties involve...
Read More
Pros and Cons of Human Rights Act 1998
The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) is a pivotal piece of legislation in the United Kingdom that incorporates the rights contained in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) into domestic law. This Act enables individuals to defend their rights in...
Read More
Sham Contract
In UK tax law and labour law, a sham contract refers to an agreement that misrepresents the true nature of the relationship between the parties involved, typically to avoid certain legal obligations and tax liabilities. This term often comes up in th...
Read More
Sham Self-employment
Sham self-employment in UK tax law and labour law refers to situations where individuals are classified or present themselves as self-employed when, in reality, their working conditions and relationship with their employer resemble those of an employ...
Read More
UK Anti-tax Avoidance Measures
The UK has implemented a robust framework of anti-tax avoidance measures aimed at preventing tax evasion and aggressive tax avoidance. These measures are designed to protect the integrity of the tax system, ensuring that individuals and corporations ...
Read More
Topics of UK Tax Law
UK Tax Law encompasses a wide range of taxes, each with its own rules and regulations. Understanding these taxes is essential for compliance and effective financial planning. Below are come of the common topics you will study in Tax Law.1. Income fro...
Read More
To what extent does the UK system of government reflect the doctrine of the separation of powers?
The UK system of government reflects the doctrine of the separation of powers, but not in the strict sense often associated with other countries, like the USA. The UK lacks a formal, written constitution, which means the separation of powers is more ...
Read More
Position of UK on Rome II after Brexit
Following the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union, a significant shift occurred in the legal landscape, particularly in the realm of international private law. Among these changes, Rome II, which pertains to non-contractual obligations...
Read More
Public Order Act 1986
The Public Order Act 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to address issues related to public order. It creates a framework for managing public demonstrations, processions, and gatherings, aiming to balance the rights of in...
Read More
Can European Court of Human Rights Overrule UK Supreme Court?
The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cannot overrule the UK Supreme Court in the direct sense of changing its decisions. However, the relationship between the ECtHR and the UK legal system, particularly regarding the Supreme Court, operates thr...
Read More
Relationship between UK Supreme Court, Court of Justice of European Union, and European Court of Human Rights
The relationship between the UK Supreme Court, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) reflects the complex legal landscape in which UK law interacts with European law. This relationship, gove...
Read More
Henry VIII Clause
In the labyrinthine corridors of legal jargon and parliamentary procedures, there exists a term that might sound more suited to the pages of history than the contemporary legal landscape: the Henry VIII clause. Named after the notorious Tudor monarch...
Read More
Right of Way in English Land Law
In English land law, the right of way stands as a cornerstone, facilitating access and passage over another's property. Rooted in centuries of legal precedent and legislation, understanding the nuances of the right of way is essential for property ow...
Read More
Image Rights in UK
In the United Kingdom, the concept of image rights holds paramount significance as it encompasses a range of rights associated with an individual's personality, including their image, likeness, and other identifiable characteristics. The primary purp...
Read More
Role of UK Secretary of State
In the United Kingdom, the Secretary of State is a senior government official who is responsible for a specific government department. The role of the Secretary of State is to oversee and manage the functions and policies of their respective departme...
Read More
12 Key Principles of UK Constitition
The United Kingdom boasts a rich and intricate constitutional framework, underpinned by a set of principles that shape the nation's governance. In this article, we explore the 12 fundamental constitutional principles that guide the UK's legal and pol...
Read More
What Is Attorney General's Reference in Case Law?
The term "Attorney General's Reference" in English law typically refers to a formal request made by the Attorney General to the Court of Appeal or the Crown Court seeking their opinion or clarification on a point of law. This process is often used in...
Read More
English Defamation Law
English defamation law has a rich historical background, with roots extending back to the Statute of Gloucester in the reign of Edward I (1272–1307). This legal framework encompasses both libel, referring to written or published defamation, and sland...
Read More
Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943
The Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 is a significant piece of legislation in the United Kingdom that addresses the rights and liabilities of parties involved in frustrated contracts. Frustration, in the context of English contract law, occ...
Read More
Collective Redundancy
Collective redundancy situations pose unique challenges for employers, requiring careful planning, effective communication, and compliance with legal obligations. This article provides guidance for employers in the United Kingdom on navigating collec...
Read More
Redundancy Fairness
Redundancy is a challenging and often distressing process for both employers and employees. To maintain trust, uphold ethical standards, and navigate the legal landscape, it is essential for employers to ensure fairness throughout the redundancy proc...
Read More
Remedies for Unfair Dismissal
Unfair dismissal constitutes a breach of an employee's rights, and when proven, the affected individual is entitled to various remedies under UK employment law. This article explores the remedies available for unfair dismissal, delving into the legal...
Read More
Automatic Unfair Dismissal
Automatic unfair dismissal is a significant aspect of UK employment law, offering enhanced protection to employees facing termination under specific circumstances deemed inherently unjust. This article explores the nuances of automatic unfair dismiss...
Read More

US Law

US Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments guarantee essential rights and civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, the press, and religion. They were introduced to ass...
Read More
10 Features of US Constitution
The United States Constitution is not just a document; it is the foundation of the nation's governance and legal framework, embodying principles that have guided the United States since its inception in 1787. As the oldest written constitution still ...
Read More
US Presidential Immunity
The concept of presidential immunity in the United States is a legal principle that shields the President and other high-level executive officials from certain lawsuits and legal actions during their term in office. This doctrine is rooted in the Con...
Read More
Role of US Secretary of State
In the United States, the role of the Secretary of State is pivotal, encompassing both federal and state levels. At the federal level, the Secretary of State serves as a prominent member of the President's Cabinet and heads the US Department of State...
Read More
US Constitutional Conventions
The United States of America, a nation forged through revolution and enlightened thought, boasts a constitutional framework that is the envy of many. While the US Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, a significant portion of the Americ...
Read More
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA) is a crucial United States statute that regulates the rights and responsibilities of shippers and ship-owners in the context of ocean shipments to and from the United States. Serving as the US implementation o...
Read More
Colorado Supreme Court Rules Trump Disqualified from 2024 Ballot
The Colorado Supreme Court has ruled that former President Donald Trump is disqualified from holding the presidency under the Constitution's insurrection clause. This marks the first time a court has found him ineligible to return to the White House ...
Read More
Federal Supreme Court vs State Supreme Court
The Federal Supreme Court and State Supreme Court are two different judicial systems within the United States. State supreme courts operate within the framework of a specific state's legal system, while the federal supreme court is the US Supreme Cou...
Read More
State Supreme Court
The United States operates under a dual system of federalism, where both federal and state courts coexist. In each of the 50 states, the highest judicial authority is the State Supreme Court, known by different names in some states. The State Supreme...
Read More
Standards of Proof in US Law
The legal system of the United States employs various standards of proof, which determine the level of evidence required to establish a fact or prove a case. These standards of proof vary depending on the type of legal proceeding, such as civil, crim...
Read More
Self-incrimination in United States
Self-incrimination is a legal concept that refers to the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which states that no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. This means that individuals have the righ...
Read More
Fifth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights. It contains several important protections for individuals involved in the American legal system, particularly in criminal cases. No pe...
Read More
Federal Government vs State Government
Federal and state governments in the United States are two distinct levels of government, each with its own set of powers, responsibilities, and jurisdictions. They share authority and collaborate on certain matters, but they also operate independent...
Read More
Equality before Law in United States
Equality before the law is a fundamental principle of the legal system in the United States. It refers to the concept that all individuals, regardless of their background, social status, wealth, race, ethnicity, gender, or any other personal characte...
Read More
Rule of Law in United States
The rule of law is a fundamental concept in the United States, and it refers to the principle that all individuals and institutions, including government officials and entities, are subject to and accountable under the law. This concept ensures that ...
Read More
Fundamental Principles of US Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the land and serves as the foundation for the American system of government. It is based on several fundamental principles that shape the country's governance and protect the rights of its citizens...
Read More
Stand-Your-Ground Law
A stand-your-ground law is a type of self-defence law that exists in certain US states. These laws allow a person to use force, including deadly force, to defend himself without a legal obligation to retreat first. In other words, he can stand his gr...
Read More
Reconstruction Amendments to US Constitution
The Reconstruction Amendments, consisting of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution, were a series of constitutional amendments ratified in the aftermath of the American Civil War. They were intended to address cr...
Read More
Fifteenth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution is one of the Reconstruction Amendments, along with the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. It was ratified on February 3, 1870, and it addresses the issue of voting rights, specifically with regard to...
Read More
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that aimed to address and eliminate racial discrimination in voting. This Act is considered one of the most important laws in the history of civil rights and played...
Read More
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is one of the most significant pieces of civil rights legislation in US history. It was enacted to address racial segregation, discrimination, and inequality, particularly against African Americans. Before the Civil Right...
Read More
Doctrine of Incorporation
The doctrine of incorporation, also known as the doctrine of selective incorporation, is a legal principle in United States constitutional law that determines how and to what extent the protections and provisions of the Bill of Rights apply to state ...
Read More
Fourth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the most significant and far-reaching amendments in American constitutional history. Ratified on July 9, 1868, it addresses various issues related to civil rights and equal protecti...
Read More
Second Amendment to US Constitution
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the Bill of Rights, which were added to the Constitution to protect individual libert...
Read More
Role of Second Amendment in Gun Violence
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, which protects the right to bear arms, is often cited in discussions about gun violence in the United States. However, it is important to note that the Second Amendment itself does not inherentl...
Read More

EU Law

Windsor Framework
The Windsor Framework is a post-Brexit legal agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom. It represents a significant step in addressing the complex challenges that have arisen following Brexit, particularly with respect to Northern I...
Read More
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union vs European Convention on Human Rights
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFR) and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) are two cornerstone instruments for the protection of human rights in Europe, but they serve different purposes within different legal fr...
Read More
Grand Chamber of Court of Justice of European Union
The Court of Justice of the European Union stands as a pillar of justice, ensuring the harmonious application and interpretation of EU law across its member states. Within this esteemed institution, standing as a bastion of legal integrity and cohere...
Read More
General Principles of EU Law
General principles of European Union law serve as foundational concepts applied by both the European Court of Justice and national courts within member states when assessing the legality of legislative and administrative measures. These principles, b...
Read More
Purposes of EEA
The European Economic Area (EEA) serves several purposes, primarily focused on fostering economic cooperation and integration between the European Union (EU) and non-EU member states. Single market access: The EEA provides non-EU countries with acces...
Read More
Why Is There EEA in Addition to EU?
The European Economic Area (EEA) exists as a broader economic integration framework that includes countries that are not members of the European Union (EU) but still wish to participate in the single European market. The EEA was established to extend...
Read More
European Council vs Council of European Union vs Council of Europe
The European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe are two distinct organisations that are often mixed up by law students. The European Council and the Council of the European are two distinct EU institutions that often baffles students studying EU la...
Read More
European Union (EU) vs European Economic Area (EEA)
The European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA) are two distinct but closely related transnational entities in Europe. European Union Membership: The EU is a political and economic union of 27 European countries that are located primaril...
Read More
Article 28 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)
Article 28 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) establishes the foundational principle of a customs union within the European Union. The Union shall be based upon a customs union which shall cover all trade in goods and which...
Read More
Principle of Subsidiarity
The principle of subsidiarity is a fundamental concept in the European Union (EU) that guides decision-making and the allocation of responsibilities between the EU and its member states. It is enshrined in the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and is me...
Read More
EU Competence
In EU Law, competence refers to the legal authority or jurisdiction that the EU has in specific policy areas. Competence determines which level of government, whether it is the EU as a whole or individual member states, can make decisions and enact l...
Read More
Fundamental Principles of EU Law
The European Union does not have a single, comprehensive constitution like many nation-states. Instead, the EU's legal framework is based on a series of treaties and agreements, including the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning...
Read More
Four Freedoms of EU Law
The Four Freedoms are core principles of EU law that aim to promote the free movement of goods, services, capital, and people within the EU's single market. These freedoms are fundamental to the EU's objective of creating a unified economic...
Read More
Rule of Law in EU
The rule of law, which ensures that the EU operates as a legal and democratic entity, is enshrined in EU law. It encompasses several key elements that guide the functioning of the EU's institutions and member states within the EU legal framework.Lega...
Read More