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Laws Consortium ⋆ Case Summaries ⋆ UK Law ⋆ US Law ⋆ EU Law ⋆ Legal Writing ⋆ Legal English ⋆

Laws Consortium

Principles of Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. It determines which court system should properly adjudicate a dispute or a case, based on factors such as geography, subject matter, and the parties involved. The p...
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Arguments for and against Criminalising Public Order Crimes
Public order crimes, also known as victimless crimes, involve acts that do not directly harm the person or property of another, but are considered to harm the community or society in general. These can include drug use, prostitution, public drunkenne...
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Prohibition on Discrimination on Grounds of Race: Fundamental to Human Rights
In the panorama of human rights, the prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race stands as a cornerstone principle, embodying the essence of equality and justice. This principle asserts that all individuals, regardless of their racial or eth...
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International Law and Military Intervention
The complex discussion around international law and military intervention, particularly for humanitarian purposes, touches on foundational principles of sovereignty, human rights, and the role of international organisations and states in addressing s...
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Discuss the relationship between 'sanction' and 'command' theories of law, with reference to the work of Austin and Kelsen.
In examining the relationship between the command and sanction theories of law as articulated by Austin and Kelsen respectively, it becomes evident that while both theories fall under the umbrella of sanction theories, they diverge significantly in t...
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Adverse Possession: A Moral Conundrum in Property Law
Adverse possession, often described as a legal doctrine allowing individuals to claim ownership of land they do not rightfully own through continuous and unauthorised use, is a concept that straddles the intersection of law, morality, and property ri...
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Unreasonableness vs Unconscionability
In the vast landscape of legal terminology, two terms frequently encountered, often interchangeably but with distinct implications, are unreasonableness and unconscionability. However their distinctions serve as vital safeguards against unfairness an...
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Himalaya Clause
In Contract Law and Commercial Law, a Himalaya clause is a provision commonly found in contracts involving carriage of goods by sea or land, particularly in bills of lading and contracts of carriage. This clause extends the benefit of limitation of l...
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Open Justice
In jurisprudence, the concept of open justice stands tall as a beacon of transparency, ensuring that the legal process remains accessible and accountable to all. Rooted in the principle that justice must not only be done but also seen to be done, ope...
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Understanding Image Rights
In the contemporary era of digital sharing and widespread dissemination of images, the concept of image rights has gained paramount significance. Image rights encapsulate the legal considerations aimed at safeguarding individuals and entities from th...
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What makes a theory of law a natural law theory?
A natural law theory of law is grounded in the idea that there are inherent and objective principles of justice and morality that underlie and guide human legal systems. These theories posit that the validity of legal rules is not solely dependent on...
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Differences Between Per Capita and Per Stripes
The law of wills and succession is a complex area that governs the distribution of a deceased person's assets among their heirs. Two key principles that play a significant role in this process are per capita and per stirpes. These Latin terms may sou...
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Human Rights vs Fundamental Rights
The terms "human rights" and "fundamental rights" are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion about their meanings. While both concepts share commonalities, they also have distinct characteristics that set them apart. This article aims to el...
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Elements of Defamation
Defamation is a legal concept that involves making false statements about an individual or entity, damaging their reputation. To establish a defamation case, certain elements typically need to be present. The exact elements can vary by jurisdiction, ...
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Common Defences to Defamation
Defamation is a legal term that refers to the act of damaging someone's reputation by making false statements about them. There are several defences available to individuals accused of defamation, which vary depending on jurisdiction. Here are some c...
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M'Naghten Rules
The M'Naghten rules, pronounced and sometimes spelled as McNaughton, represent a legal test that defines the defence of insanity. First formulated by the House of Lords in 1843, this test has become the established standard in English criminal law an...
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Negligence vs Recklessness
Negligence and recklessness are both legal concepts that pertain to different levels of culpability in tort law and criminal law. NegligenceNegligence is the failure to exercise the degree of care that a reasonable person would exercise under similar...
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Motive vs Intent
Motive and intent are distinct concepts in criminal law, and they refer to different aspects of a person's mental state and actions.IntentIntent or intention refers to the actor's purpose or aim in committing a specific act. It involves the consciou...
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Malice vs Intent
Malice and intent are legal terms often used to describe different mental states or culpable mental elements in criminal law. While they share some similarities, they have distinct meanings:IntentIntent or Intention refers to the actor's purpose or a...
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What Is Trite Law?
Trite law refers to legal principles that are well-established, widely recognised, and considered to be settled and elementary within a particular legal jurisdiction. These are principles that have been consistently applied and accepted over time, an...
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Differences Between Common Law And Civil Law Systems
The legal systems of the world can broadly be categorised into two main types: Common Law and Civil Law. These systems serve as the foundation for the legal frameworks of numerous countries, each with its own unique characteristics and principles. Un...
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How to Achieve Judiciary Diversity
The question of whether the judiciary is diverse enough is a complex and often debated issue in many jurisdictions. Diversity in the judiciary refers to a range of factors, including but not limited to gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic backgroun...
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Role of Juries in Criminal Trials
Juries play a pivotal role in the criminal justice system, acting as a fundamental component that ensures fairness, impartiality, and democratic values in the adjudication of criminal cases. In this article, we will explore the significance of juries...
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Marxism and the Concept of Class
Marxism, as a socio-political and economic theory, has significantly shaped our understanding of societal structures and the distribution of power. At the core of Marxist philosophy is the concept of class, which explores the intricate relationships ...
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What Is Unconscionability?
Unconscionability, a legal concept deeply embedded in contract law, serves as a powerful safeguard against unfair and oppressive contractual practices. Rooted in principles of equity and fairness, the doctrine of unconscionability empowers courts to ...
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Case Summaries

Clinton v Jones 1997
Clinton v Jones [1997] 520 US 681 is a landmark ruling that unequivocally declared that a sitting President is not immune from civil litigation for acts done before taking office and unrelated to the office. This decision represented a significant mo...
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Nixon v Fitzgerald 1982
Nixon v Fitzgerald 457 US 731 [1982] is a cornerstone in the legal framework surrounding presidential immunity within the United States. This case unequivocally established the precedent that the President of the United States is granted absolute imm...
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R v Lucas [1981]
R v Lucas (Lyabode Ruth) [1981] QB 720 established the Lucas direction which stands as a guiding principle within criminal trials, particularly in how juries should interpret evidence concerning lies told by a defendant. This legal doctrine, establis...
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Wood v Waddington [2014]
Wood v Waddington [2014] EWHC 1358 examined the scope and application of the implied grant of easements under Section 62 of the Law of Property Act 1925 (LPA 1925), departing from the precedents set in earlier cases such as Long v Gowlett and Kent v ...
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Smith and Snipes Hall Farm v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949]
Smith and Snipes Hall Farm Ltd v River Douglas Catchment Board [1949] 2 KB 500 is a significant English land law and contract law appeal decision. The case, decided by Denning LJ, establishes key principles related to positive covenants, privity of c...
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Borman v Griffith 1930
Borman v Griffith [1930] 1 Ch 493 is a significant case in English property law, particularly regarding the implication of easements under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows.The case involved a lease agreement between the tenant and the landlord for a lo...
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AG Securities v Vaughan; Antoniades v Villiers 1988
AG Securities v Vaughan and Antoniades v Villiers [1988] UKHL 8 were pivotal House of Lords cases that clarified the role of exclusive possession in determining the nature of a lease under English land law. These rulings provided crucial guidance on ...
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R (G) v Governors of X School 2011
R (G) v Governors of X School [2011] UKSC 30 examined whether the claimant's rights under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) were engaged in a disciplinary hearing conducted by X School. The claimant argued that the school...
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R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office 2008
R (Corner House Research) v Director of Serious Fraud Office [2008] UKHL 60 revolved around the Serious Fraud Office's (SFO) decision to terminate an investigation into alleged bribery involving BAE Systems, a major defence contractor, and the S...
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Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd 1949
Yachuk v Oliver Blais Co Ltd [1949] AC 386 revolved around the attribution of injuries suffered by a nine-year-old boy solely to the negligence of the respondent's employee and whether there was contributory negligence on the part of the child.The cl...
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W v Essex County Council 2001
W v Essex County Council [2001] 2 AC 592 is a legal case that explored the concept of primary and secondary victims in the context of psychiatric injury resulting from negligence. The case involved involuntary participants placed in a situation by th...
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Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council 2000
Jolley v Sutton London Borough Council [2000] 1 WLR 1082 is a significant case that delves into the foreseeability of harm in negligence claims, particularly when the claimant is a child. The central issue revolved around the duty of care owed by the...
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Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co 2008
Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co [2008] 1 AC 281 marked a significant development in the law regarding the recovery of damages for psychiatric illness. The central principle established in this case is that for psychiatric illness to be recove...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Miller Steamship Co Ltd 1967
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v The Miller Steamship Co Ltd [1967] 1 AC 617, commonly referred to as The Wagon Mound (No 2), established a key legal principle regarding the relevance of the seriousness of possible harm in determining the extent of a par...
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Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd 1961
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock and Engineering Co Ltd [1961] AC 388, commonly known as The Wagon Mound (No 1), established a crucial principle in the law of negligence—that for damage or injury to be actionable, it must be reasonably foresee...
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R v Pitham and Hehl 1997
R v Pitham and Hehl [1997] 65 Cr App R 45 revolved around whether offering something for sale that one does not own, even without physically moving the property, constitutes appropriation under the Theft Act 1968.A person, referred to as M, sold furn...
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Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) 1975
Attorney General’s Ref (No 1) [1975] QB 773 clarified the requirements for the offence of procuring, emphasising that shared intention between the person procuring an offence and the person committing it is not a necessary element.The facts involved ...
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R v Bainbridge 1960
R v Bainbridge [1960] 1 QB 129 clarified the requirement for guilt in aiding and abetting, stating that the accessory must have knowledge of the intention of the principal to commit an offence of the type that was actually committed.The case involved...
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Blakely and Sutton v DPP 1991
Blakely and Sutton v DPP [1991] Crim LR 763 examined the mens rea (mental element) required for the offence of procuring. The central premise established was that the mens rea of procuring entails both the intention to perform the act that significan...
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R v Rook 1993
R v Rook [1993] 2 All ER 955 examined the requirement for an accused to successfully withdraw from a criminal enterprise in which they had initially participated. The key criterion emphasised was the necessity for unequivocal communication of withdra...
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R v Becerra and Cooper 1976
R v Becerra and Cooper [1976] 62 App R 212 addressed the criteria for successfully withdrawing from a criminal enterprise, emphasising the necessity of unequivocal communication of withdrawal to other perpetrators.Becerra providing Cooper with a knif...
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R v O’Flaherty 2004
R v O’Flaherty [2004] EWCA Crim 526 concerned the issue of withdrawal from a joint enterprise, emphasising that spontaneous disengagement without communication could constitute a valid withdrawal.Three defendants, X, Y, and Z, who participated in an ...
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R v Calhaem 1985
R v Calhaem [1985] QB 808 explored the concept of guilt as an accessory and the extent of liability for counselling without a direct causal link between the counselling and the principal offence.Calhaem, the defendant, counselling an individual, X, t...
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R v Clarkson (David) 1971
R v Clarkson (David) [1971] 55 Cr App Rep 445 is an English criminal case that dealt with aiding and abetting, particularly the requirement of active encouragement for liability to be established.The defendant, David Clarkson, was implicated in a dis...
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R v JF Alford Transport 1997
R v JF Alford Transport [1997] 2 Cr APP R 326 addressed the principle that an omission could constitute aiding and abetting if the defendant had control over the principal and knowledge of the offence. Additionally, the court clarified that deliberat...
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UK Law

Public Order Act 1986
The Public Order Act 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to address issues related to public order. It creates a framework for managing public demonstrations, processions, and gatherings, aiming to balance the rights of in...
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Can European Court of Human Rights Overrule UK Supreme Court?
The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cannot overrule the UK Supreme Court in the direct sense of changing its decisions. However, the relationship between the ECtHR and the UK legal system, particularly regarding the Supreme Court, operates thr...
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Relationship between UK Supreme Court, Court of Justice of European Union, and European Court of Human Rights
The relationship between the UK Supreme Court, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) reflects the complex legal landscape in which UK law interacts with European law. This relationship, gove...
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Henry VIII Clause
In the labyrinthine corridors of legal jargon and parliamentary procedures, there exists a term that might sound more suited to the pages of history than the contemporary legal landscape: the Henry VIII clause. Named after the notorious Tudor monarch...
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Right of Way in English Land Law
In English land law, the right of way stands as a cornerstone, facilitating access and passage over another's property. Rooted in centuries of legal precedent and legislation, understanding the nuances of the right of way is essential for property ow...
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Image Rights in UK
In the United Kingdom, the concept of image rights holds paramount significance as it encompasses a range of rights associated with an individual's personality, including their image, likeness, and other identifiable characteristics. The primary purp...
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Role of UK Secretary of State
In the United Kingdom, the Secretary of State is a senior government official who is responsible for a specific government department. The role of the Secretary of State is to oversee and manage the functions and policies of their respective departme...
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12 Key Principles of UK Constitition
The United Kingdom boasts a rich and intricate constitutional framework, underpinned by a set of principles that shape the nation's governance. In this article, we explore the 12 fundamental constitutional principles that guide the UK's leg...
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What Is Attorney General's Reference in Case Law?
The term "Attorney General's Reference" in English law typically refers to a formal request made by the Attorney General to the Court of Appeal or the Crown Court seeking their opinion or clarification on a point of law. This process is often used in...
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English Defamation Law
English defamation law has a rich historical background, with roots extending back to the Statute of Gloucester in the reign of Edward I (1272–1307). This legal framework encompasses both libel, referring to written or published defamation, and sland...
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Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943
The Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 is a significant piece of legislation in the United Kingdom that addresses the rights and liabilities of parties involved in frustrated contracts. Frustration, in the context of English contract law, occ...
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Collective Redundancy
Collective redundancy situations pose unique challenges for employers, requiring careful planning, effective communication, and compliance with legal obligations. This article provides guidance for employers in the United Kingdom on navigating collec...
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Redundancy Fairness
Redundancy is a challenging and often distressing process for both employers and employees. To maintain trust, uphold ethical standards, and navigate the legal landscape, it is essential for employers to ensure fairness throughout the redundancy proc...
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Remedies for Unfair Dismissal
Unfair dismissal constitutes a breach of an employee's rights, and when proven, the affected individual is entitled to various remedies under UK employment law. This article explores the remedies available for unfair dismissal, delving into the legal...
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Automatic Unfair Dismissal
Automatic unfair dismissal is a significant aspect of UK employment law, offering enhanced protection to employees facing termination under specific circumstances deemed inherently unjust. This article explores the nuances of automatic unfair dismiss...
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Statutory Illegality Dismissal
Statutory illegality dismissal is a unique aspect of UK employment law that arises when the continuation of an employment relationship becomes unlawful due to statutory or legal reasons. In such cases, employers may find themselves compelled to termi...
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Unfair Dismissal Redundancy
Unfair dismissal is a prominent issue in UK employment law, and when it intersects with redundancy, it introduces additional complexities. Redundancy-related dismissals must adhere to specific legal criteria to be considered fair and lawful. This art...
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Conduct Dismissal
Conduct dismissals in the United Kingdom form a critical aspect of employment law, allowing employers to terminate an employee's contract due to serious misconduct. Striking a delicate balance between maintaining discipline in the workplace and uphol...
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Ill-health Dismissal
Ill-health dismissals present a unique set of challenges for both employers and employees in the context of UK employment law. When an employee's health becomes a significant impediment to performing their job duties, employers may consider dismissal...
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Poor Performance Dismissal
Dealing with employee performance issues is a challenging aspect of managing a workforce, and employers may, under certain circumstances, find it necessary to consider dismissal due to poor performance. In the realm of UK employment law, the process ...
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Constructive Dismissal
Constructive dismissal, a nuanced concept within UK employment law, offers protection to employees who find themselves compelled to resign due to a fundamental breach of their employment contract by the employer. Unlike traditional dismissal scenario...
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Unfair Dismissal
Unfair dismissal stands as a cornerstone concept in UK employment law, safeguarding employees from arbitrary and unjust termination. This legal principle provides a framework for evaluating the legitimacy of dismissals, ensuring that employers adhere...
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Wrongful Dismissal
Wrongful dismissal in UK employment law is a critical aspect that governs the termination of employment contracts between employers and employees. It refers to a situation where an employee is dismissed in breach of their employment contract, leading...
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Actual Occupation in Land Law
The concept of actual occupation in land law, particularly in the context of overriding interests, has been shaped through case law and statutes. The purpose of allowing individuals to claim an overriding interest is to prevent property interests fro...
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Summary Judgment under Civil Procedure Rules (CPR)
Summary judgment under the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) Part 24 is a legal process that allows a claim to be resolved without going to trial. It can be initiated by either the claimant or the defendant, and the court may grant judgment on the whole cl...
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US Law

US Presidential Immunity
The concept of presidential immunity in the United States is a legal principle that shields the President and other high-level executive officials from certain lawsuits and legal actions during their term in office. This doctrine is rooted in the Con...
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Role of US Secretary of State
In the United States, the role of the Secretary of State is pivotal, encompassing both federal and state levels. At the federal level, the Secretary of State serves as a prominent member of the President's Cabinet and heads the US Department of State...
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US Constitutional Conventions
The United States of America, a nation forged through revolution and enlightened thought, boasts a constitutional framework that is the envy of many. While the US Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, a significant portion of the Americ...
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Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA) is a crucial United States statute that regulates the rights and responsibilities of shippers and ship-owners in the context of ocean shipments to and from the United States. Serving as the US implementation o...
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Colorado Supreme Court Rules Trump Disqualified from 2024 Ballot
The Colorado Supreme Court has ruled that former President Donald Trump is disqualified from holding the presidency under the Constitution's insurrection clause. This marks the first time a court has found him ineligible to return to the White House ...
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Federal Supreme Court vs State Supreme Court
The Federal Supreme Court and State Supreme Court are two different judicial systems within the United States. State supreme courts operate within the framework of a specific state's legal system, while the federal supreme court is the US Supreme Cou...
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State Supreme Court
The United States operates under a dual system of federalism, where both federal and state courts coexist. In each of the 50 states, the highest judicial authority is the State Supreme Court, known by different names in some states. The State Supreme...
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Standards of Proof in US Law
The legal system of the United States employs various standards of proof, which determine the level of evidence required to establish a fact or prove a case. These standards of proof vary depending on the type of legal proceeding, such as civil, crim...
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Self-incrimination in United States
Self-incrimination is a legal concept that refers to the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which states that no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. This means that individuals have the righ...
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Fifth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights. It contains several important protections for individuals involved in the American legal system, particularly in criminal cases. No pe...
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Federal Government vs State Government
Federal and state governments in the United States are two distinct levels of government, each with its own set of powers, responsibilities, and jurisdictions. They share authority and collaborate on certain matters, but they also operate independent...
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Equality before Law in United States
Equality before the law is a fundamental principle of the legal system in the United States. It refers to the concept that all individuals, regardless of their background, social status, wealth, race, ethnicity, gender, or any other personal characte...
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Rule of Law in United States
The rule of law is a fundamental concept in the United States, and it refers to the principle that all individuals and institutions, including government officials and entities, are subject to and accountable under the law. This concept ensures that ...
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Fundamental Principles of US Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the land and serves as the foundation for the American system of government. It is based on several fundamental principles that shape the country's governance and protect the rights of its citizens...
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Stand-Your-Ground Law
A stand-your-ground law is a type of self-defence law that exists in certain US states. These laws allow a person to use force, including deadly force, to defend himself without a legal obligation to retreat first. In other words, he can stand his gr...
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Reconstruction Amendments to US Constitution
The Reconstruction Amendments, consisting of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution, were a series of constitutional amendments ratified in the aftermath of the American Civil War. They were intended to address cr...
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Fifteenth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution is one of the Reconstruction Amendments, along with the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. It was ratified on February 3, 1870, and it addresses the issue of voting rights, specifically with regard to...
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that aimed to address and eliminate racial discrimination in voting. This Act is considered one of the most important laws in the history of civil rights and played...
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is one of the most significant pieces of civil rights legislation in US history. It was enacted to address racial segregation, discrimination, and inequality, particularly against African Americans. Before the Civil Right...
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Doctrine of Incorporation
The doctrine of incorporation, also known as the doctrine of selective incorporation, is a legal principle in United States constitutional law that determines how and to what extent the protections and provisions of the Bill of Rights apply to state ...
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Fourth Amendment to US Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the most significant and far-reaching amendments in American constitutional history. Ratified on July 9, 1868, it addresses various issues related to civil rights and equal protecti...
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Second Amendment to US Constitution
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the Bill of Rights, which were added to the Constitution to protect individual libert...
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Role of Second Amendment in Gun Violence
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, which protects the right to bear arms, is often cited in discussions about gun violence in the United States. However, it is important to note that the Second Amendment itself does not inherentl...
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Why Is It Difficult to Implement Gun Control in United States
In the United States, banning people from having access to firearms as a way to reduce gun violence is challenging for several reasons, reflecting the complex nature of the issue and the unique historical and cultural context of the country.Second Am...
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Impact of California Proposition 47 on Crime Rate
California Proposition 47, passed in 2014, aimed to reduce incarceration rates for nonviolent offences by reclassifying certain offences from felonies to misdemeanours. The impact of Proposition 47 on crime rates has been a subject of debate and stud...
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EU Law

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union vs European Convention on Human Rights
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFR) and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) are two cornerstone instruments for the protection of human rights in Europe, but they serve different purposes within different legal fr...
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Grand Chamber of Court of Justice of European Union
The Court of Justice of the European Union stands as a pillar of justice, ensuring the harmonious application and interpretation of EU law across its member states. Within this esteemed institution, standing as a bastion of legal integrity and cohere...
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General Principles of EU Law
General principles of European Union law serve as foundational concepts applied by both the European Court of Justice and national courts within member states when assessing the legality of legislative and administrative measures. These principles, b...
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Purposes of EEA
The European Economic Area (EEA) serves several purposes, primarily focused on fostering economic cooperation and integration between the European Union (EU) and non-EU member states. Single market access: The EEA provides non-EU countries with acces...
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Why Is There EEA in Addition to EU?
The European Economic Area (EEA) exists as a broader economic integration framework that includes countries that are not members of the European Union (EU) but still wish to participate in the single European market. The EEA was established to extend...
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European Council vs Council of European Union vs Council of Europe
The European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe are two distinct organisations that are often mixed up by law students. The European Council and the Council of the European are two distinct EU institutions that often baffles students studying EU la...
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European Union (EU) vs European Economic Area (EEA)
The European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA) are two distinct but closely related transnational entities in Europe. European Union Membership: The EU is a political and economic union of 27 European countries that are located primaril...
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Article 28 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)
Article 28 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) establishes the foundational principle of a customs union within the European Union. The Union shall be based upon a customs union which shall cover all trade in goods and which...
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Principle of Subsidiarity
The principle of subsidiarity is a fundamental concept in the European Union (EU) that guides decision-making and the allocation of responsibilities between the EU and its member states. It is enshrined in the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and is me...
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EU Competence
In EU Law, competence refers to the legal authority or jurisdiction that the EU has in specific policy areas. Competence determines which level of government, whether it is the EU as a whole or individual member states, can make decisions and enact l...
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Fundamental Principles of EU Law
The European Union does not have a single, comprehensive constitution like many nation-states. Instead, the EU's legal framework is based on a series of treaties and agreements, including the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning...
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Four Freedoms of EU Law
The Four Freedoms are core principles of EU law that aim to promote the free movement of goods, services, capital, and people within the EU's single market. These freedoms are fundamental to the EU's objective of creating a unified economic...
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Rule of Law in EU
The rule of law, which ensures that the EU operates as a legal and democratic entity, is enshrined in EU law. It encompasses several key elements that guide the functioning of the EU's institutions and member states within the EU legal framework.Lega...
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7 Types of EU Law
The European Union uses different types of legal acts to establish and regulate its policies and laws. These types of EU legal acts allow the EU to establish legal frameworks, set standards, and provide guidance across a wide range of policy areas wh...
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Direct Effect and Indirect Effect of EU Law
In EU law, the principles of direct effect and indirect effect are legal doctrines that determine how EU laws, particularly EU regulations and directives, are applied and enforced within the legal systems of EU member states.Direct effect: Direct eff...
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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU Charter)
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU Charter) is a legally binding document that sets out the fundamental rights and freedoms protected within the European Union. It was proclaimed in December 2000 and became legally binding wi...
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Supremacy of European Union Law
The supremacy of European Union law is a fundamental principle of EU law that establishes the hierarchy of legal norms within the legal system of the European Union. It essentially means that EU law takes precedence over national laws of EU member st...
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European Central Bank
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the Eurozone, which is composed of the countries that have adopted the euro as their currency. The ECB plays a pivotal role in ensuring price stability, conducting monetary policy, and overseeing...
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Court of Justice of the European Union
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is the judicial institution of the European Union. It ensures the uniform interpretation and application of EU law across member states, safeguards the rights of individuals and businesses, and contri...
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Council of the European Union
The Council of the European Union, often referred to simply as the Council, is one of the main institutions of the European Union. It represents the member states and plays a crucial role in the EU's decision-making process. Here are some key aspects...
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European Parliament
The European Parliament is one of the key institutions of the European Union and represents EU citizens at the European level. Directly elected by EU citizens and acting as the legislative body of the EU, it plays a central role in the EU's legislati...
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European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union that brings together the heads of state or government of EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission. It serves as a foru...
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European Commission
The European Commission, often simply referred to as the Commission, is one of the principal institutions of the European Union. As the executive branch and administrative body of the EU, it plays a central role in the EU's governance, policymaking, ...
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Institutions of European Union
The European Union has several institutions that play key roles in its governance and decision-making processes. These institutions are the major pillars of the EU ensuring the functioning, democratic representation, and administration of the EU.Euro...
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Treaty of Nice
The Treaty of Nice, also known as the Nice Treaty, is an international agreement that amended the functioning of the European Union. It was signed on February 26, 2001, and entered into force on February 1, 2003. The treaty aimed to reform the EU's i...
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Legal Writing