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UOL Commercial Law

Commercial Law is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the legal frameworks governing commercial transactions. This course explores various aspects of commercial law, ranging from the nature of personal property to the intricacies of international sales, agency relationships, credit, and security. Students will delve into the complexities of contract terms, delivery and payment, and the legal mechanisms for resolving disputes in commercial transactions.


1. Introduction

The introductory module sets the stage for the exploration of commercial law. Students gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles that underpin commercial transactions, providing a solid foundation for the subsequent topics covered in the course.


2. Personal Property

This module examines the legal aspects of personal property, including its nature, classification, and the rights associated with ownership. Students explore how personal property is bought, sold, and secured in commercial transactions.


3. Agency

The concept of agency in commercial law involves one party (the agent) acting on behalf of another (the principal). Students examine the legal principles that govern agency relationships, exploring the authority of agents and the implications of their actions on the principal.


4. Authority of Agents

This module delves into the specific authority granted to agents in commercial transactions. Students explore the different types of authority, including actual, apparent, and inherent authority, and how they impact the legal consequences of actions taken by agents.


5. Types of Agents

Agents come in various forms, each with its own set of legal implications. Students study the different types of agents, such as general agents, special agents, and sub-agents, and understand the responsibilities and powers associated with each.


6. Ratification

When an agent takes action without prior authorisation, the principal may choose to ratify or reject those actions. This module explores the legal concept of ratification, its requirements, and the consequences for both agents and principals.


7. Agency Relationships

The broader context of agency relationships is examined in this module. Students explore how agency relationships are formed, the duties and obligations of agents and principals, and the termination of agency relationships.


8. Credit and Security

In commercial transactions, the extension of credit and the provision of security are common practices. This module covers the legal mechanisms surrounding credit agreements, security interests, and the rights of creditors and debtors.


9. Assignment and Set-off

The ability to assign rights and set-off debts are important aspects of commercial law. Students study the legal rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and the set-off of mutual debts in commercial transactions.


10. Classification of Goods

Goods are often classified in commercial transactions based on various criteria. This module explores the legal classifications of goods, including fungible and non-fungible goods, and their implications for buyers and sellers.


11. Sale of Goods

The sale of goods is a fundamental aspect of commercial transactions. Students examine the legal principles governing the sale of goods, including the formation of contracts, transfer of ownership, and the seller's obligations.


12. Sale of Services

In addition to goods, services are often exchanged in commercial transactions. This module covers the legal aspects of service contracts, including their formation, performance, and remedies for breach.


13. Passing of Property

The transfer of ownership of goods is a critical aspect of commercial transactions. This module explores the legal rules governing the passing of property in the sale of goods, including the significance of delivery and payment.


14. Passing of Risk

Risk allocation is a crucial consideration in commercial transactions. Students examine the legal principles governing the passing of risk from sellers to buyers, including the impact on performance and liability.


15. Demo Dat Rule

The Demo Dat Rule is a legal principle concerning the delivery of goods. Students explore the application of this rule, its origins, and its implications for determining when delivery takes place.


16. Contract Terms

This module delves into the importance of contract terms in commercial agreements. Students study the legal principles surrounding the interpretation, construction, and enforcement of contractual terms.


17. Delivery and Payment

The logistics of delivering goods and making payments are critical in commercial transactions. Students explore the legal aspects of delivery and payment, including the timing, methods, and obligations of the parties involved.


18. Terms Implied by SGA

The Sale of Goods Act (SGA) implies certain terms into contracts for the sale of goods. Students study these implied terms, their significance, and the legal consequences of breaches.


19. Terms Implied by CRA

The Consumer Rights Act (CRA) introduces specific implied terms into consumer contracts. This module covers the implied terms under the CRA and their impact on consumer protection in commercial transactions.


20. Remedies for Buyers

When commercial transactions go awry, buyers have legal remedies available to them. This module explores the various remedies, including specific performance, damages, and the rejection of goods, that buyers can pursue.


21. Remedies for Sellers

Sellers also have legal remedies when faced with breaches of contract. Students examine the remedies available to sellers, including actions for the price, damages, and specific performance.


22. International Sales

The international sale of goods introduces unique legal considerations. This module explores the legal aspects of cross-border transactions, including the application of international conventions and the resolution of disputes.


23. Fob Contracts

Free on Board (FOB) contracts are a common type of international sales agreement. Students study the legal principles underlying FOB contracts, including the transfer of risk and cost between the parties.


24. Cif Contracts

Cost, Insurance, and Freight (CIF) contracts are another form of international sales agreement. This module covers the legal aspects of CIF contracts, including the obligations of the parties and the passing of risk.


25. Bill of Exchange

Bills of exchange play a crucial role in commercial transactions, especially in finance. Students explore the legal principles surrounding bills of exchange, including their form, negotiation, and enforcement.


26. Banking

The banking industry is integral to commercial transactions. This module covers the legal aspects of banking, including the relationship between banks and customers, electronic funds transfers, and the regulation of banking activities.


27. Documentary Credit

Documentary credits are commonly used in international trade. Students study the legal principles governing documentary credits, their types, and the rights and obligations of the parties involved.


By exploring topics such as agency, sale of goods, international sales, and remedies for breaches, students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to navigate complex commercial scenarios. This course not only equips students with a solid foundation in commercial law principles but also encourages critical thinking and practical application.


Check out our exam-focused Commercial Law notes now.

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